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2022 ◽  
Vol 94 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Gang Pu ◽  
Shan Jiang ◽  
Zhiyong Yang ◽  
Yuanjing Hu ◽  
Ziqi Liu

2022 ◽  
Miriam Krieger ◽  
Steven Water ◽  
Michael M Folkerts ◽  
Alejandro Mazal ◽  
Silvia Fabiano ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Jun Itami ◽  
Naoya Murakami ◽  
Miho Watanabe ◽  
Shuhei Sekii ◽  
Takahiro Kasamatsu ◽  

High-dose-rate brachytherapy by remote afterloading is now performed under three-dimensional image guidance by CT or MRI. Three-dimensional image-guided brachytherapy in cervical cancer disclosed that the traditional intracavitary brachytherapy by Manchester method cannot deliver an adequate dose to the large tumor with resulting local recurrence. To improve the local control rate, combined interstitial and intracavitary (hybrid) brachytherapy can increase the dose to the large parametrial involvement without increasing the dose to the rectum and bladder. Whether hybrid brachytherapy can be performed safely on a multi-institutional basis remains to be studied. From 2015, phase I/II study of hybrid brachytherapy was launched in Japan, and it was revealed that hybrid brachytherapy can be performed safely and with a high quality of radiation dose distribution in a multi-institutional study. In Japan, the number of patients undergoing hybrid brachytherapy in cervical cancer is rapidly rising. Education and clinical trial are very important to establish hybrid brachytherapy in the management of cervical cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Shouyi Wei ◽  
Haibo Lin ◽  
J. Isabelle Choi ◽  
Robert H. Press ◽  
Stanislav Lazarev ◽  

PurposeThis work aims to study the dose and ultra-high-dose rate characteristics of transmission proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) FLASH radiotherapy (RT) for hypofractionation liver cancer based on the parameters of a commercially available proton system operating under FLASH mode.Methods and MaterialsAn in-house treatment planning software (TPS) was developed to perform intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) FLASH-RT planning. Single-energy transmission proton PBS plans of 4.5 Gy × 15 fractions were optimized for seven consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma patients, using 2 and 5 fields combined with 1) the minimum MU/spot chosen between 100 and 400, and minimum spot time (MST) of 2 ms, and 2) the minimum MU/spot of 100, and MST of 0.5 ms, based upon considerations in target uniformities, OAR dose constraints, and OAR FLASH dose rate coverage. Then, the 3D average dose rate distribution was calculated. The dose metrics for the mean dose of Liver-GTV and other major OARs were characterized to evaluate the dose quality for the different combinations of field numbers and minimum spot times compared to that of conventional IMPT plans. Dose rate quality was evaluated using 40 Gy/s volume coverage (V40Gy/s).ResultsAll plans achieved favorable and comparable target uniformities, and target uniformity improved as the number of fields increased. For OARs, no significant dose differences were observed between plans of different field numbers and the same MST. For plans using shorter MST and the same field numbers, better sparing was generally observed in most OARs and was statistically significant for the chest wall. However, the FLASH dose rate coverage V40Gy/s was increased by 20% for 2-field plans compared to 5-field plans in most OARs with 2-ms MST, which was less evident in the 0.5-ms cases. For 2-field plans, dose metrics and V40Gy/s of select OARs have large variations due to the beam angle selection and variable distances to the targets. The transmission plans generally yielded inferior dosimetric quality to the conventional IMPT plans.ConclusionThis is the first attempt to assess liver FLASH treatment planning and demonstrates that it is challenging for hypofractionation with smaller fractional doses (4.5 Gy/fraction). Using fewer fields can allow higher minimum MU/spot, resulting in higher OAR FLASH dose rate coverages while achieving similar plan quality compared to plans with more fields. Shorter MST can result in better plan quality and comparable or even better FLASH dose rate coverage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1049 ◽  
pp. 174-179
A.A. Karnauhov ◽  
R.N. Yastrebinskii

The results of experimental studies of the protective properties of titanium hydride with respect to neutron and gamma radiation in order to determine the optimal conditions for their use in the composition of the structural radiation protection of the nuclear reactor are presented. The weakening of the basic functionals in the thickness of protection, including the density of fast, intermediate and thermal neutrons, and the dose rate of gamma radiation is established. The functions of weakening the density of neutron flow and the dose rate of gamma radiation are measured in the conditions of "barrier" geometry. Determination of the protective properties of the structure was carried out when the modified titanium hydride fraction was placed in aluminum containers with a filling coefficient of a volume of container 0.63. The relaxation lengths for all neutron groups are close and on average are 9.8 cm. The functions of weakening the dose rate of gamma radiation of point sources Cs-137 and Co-60 are exponential. The weakening of radiation occurs with a constant relaxation length. For energy 0.661 MeV, the relaxation length is 7.1 cm, for energy 1.25 MeV, the relaxation length is equal to 10.1 cm. On the basis of the experimental studies, the high efficiency of the modified fraction of titanium hydride was confirmed during its use in protecting nuclear power plants.

2022 ◽  
Emil Schüler ◽  
Munjal Acharya ◽  
Pierre Montay‐Gruel ◽  
Billy W. Loo ◽  
Marie‐Catherine Vozenin ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Hideya Yamazaki ◽  
Gen Suzuki ◽  
Norihiro Aibe ◽  
Daisuke Shimizu ◽  
Takuya Kimoto ◽  

AbstractAs several recent researches focus on the importance of Gleason 9–10, we examine the role of radiotherapy dose escalation in those patients. We analyzed 476 patients with Gleason score 9–10 prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy. Of them, 127 patients were treated with conventional-dose external beam radiotherapy (Conv RT) and 349 patients were treated with high-dose radiotherapy (HDRT; 249 patients received high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost + external beam radiotherapy [HDR boost] and 100 patients received intensity-modulated radiotherapy [IMRT]). We compared these treatment groups using multi-institutional retrospective data. The patients had a median follow-up period of 66.3 months. HDRT showed superior biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) rate (85.2%; HDR boost 84.7% and IMRT 86.6%) to Conv RT (71.1%, p < 0.0001) at 5 years, with a hazard ratio of 0.448. There were borderline difference in prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM; 4.3% and 2.75%, p = 0.0581), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; 94.4% and 89.6%, p = 0.0916) rates at 5-years between Conv RT and HDRT group. Dose escalated radiotherapy showed better bDFS, borderline improvement in PCSM, and equivocal outcome in DMFS in with clinically localized Gleason 9–10 prostate cancer.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 222
Luboš Tuček ◽  
Milan Vošmik ◽  
Jiří Petera

Brachytherapy (BT) involves the direct application of radioactive sources to the tumour. This technique is characterised by a steep dose gradient, the delivery of high-dose radiation to the target volume centre, and the sparing of surrounding healthy tissues. Low-dose-rate (LDR) BT and manual afterloading played an important role in the treatment of early-stage oral cancer, with treatment outcomes that were comparable to surgery. Interest in BT as a primary treatment for oral cancer has declined in recent years due to the emergence of better surgical techniques, the switch from LDR BT to high-dose-rate (HDR) BT (which has a higher risk of complications), and to advances in external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). At present, the main indications for BT are in the postoperative setting due to the superior dose conformity and better quality of life offered by BT versus EBRT. Postoperative BT can be administered as monotherapy in early-stage (T1N0) cancers and in combination with elective neck dissection or EBRT to treat larger or deeper tumours. BT yields excellent results for lip carcinoma in older patients and in tumours with unfavourable localisations. BT is an effective salvage therapy for local recurrences in previously-irradiated areas. Despite its many advantages, brachytherapy is a complex treatment requiring meticulous technique and close cooperation between the radiation oncologist, physicist, and surgeon.

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