Oral Cancer
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Oral Oncology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 125 ◽  
pp. 105711
Gerardo Gilligan ◽  
Eduardo Piemonte ◽  
Jerónimo Lazos ◽  
René Panico

Oral Oncology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 125 ◽  
pp. 105713
Auxzilia Preethi K ◽  
Sushmaa Chandralekha Selvakumar ◽  
Jayaraman Selvaraj ◽  
Ullas Mony ◽  
Vishnu Priya Veeraraghavan ◽  

V Monish ◽  
V Jaya ◽  
R Johnsi Rani

This study is aimed to investigate the articulatory functions of patients who have undergone tongue reconstruction following hemiglossectomy. The second aim of the study is to compare the speech intelligibility between hemiglossectomy patients who have undergone tongue reconstruction using pectoralis major myocutaneous with those hemiglossectomy patients who had undergone tongue reconstruction using radial forearm free flap.Fourteen patients who have undergone tongue reconstruction following hemiglossectomy as a treatment for oral cancer between the age of 30 to 60 years were taken up for this study. Tamil Articulation Test was used for assessing the articulatory functions of patients. The speech intelligibility of each patient was assessed using the Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped intelligibility rating scale. Analysis of articulatory errors revealed linguoalveolar consonants were more impaired when compared to other consonants. Patients with radial forearm free flap had somewhat better speech intelligibility compared to patients with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction.The type of reconstruction also impacts the speech intelligibility. Effective intervention can be planned based on the comprehensive speech evaluation and analysis of articulatory error relative to place and manner of production.

Shu-Zhen Zhang ◽  
Long Xie ◽  
Zheng-Jun Shang

Background: Oral cancer (OC) is a common tumour that poses a threat to human health and imposes a heavy burden on countries. This study assessed the burden imposed by OC on the 10 most populous countries from 1990 to 2019 on the basis of gender, age and socio-demographic index. Methods: Data on incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and corresponding age-standardised rates (ASR) for OC in the 10 most populous countries from 1990 to 2019 were derived from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Estimated annual percentage changes were calculated to assess the trends of morbidity, mortality and DALY. The indicator that served as a proxy for survival rate was the supplement of mortality-to-incidence ratio (SMIR) (1 − (M/I)). Results: The number of new cases, deaths and DALY have increased in all 10 countries in the past 30 years. Trends in age-standardised incidence rates (ASIR), age-standardised mortality rate (ASMR) and age-standardised DALY for OC in the 10 most populous countries varied. The SMIR increased in all countries, with most countries having an SMIR between 30% and 50%. In 2019, the United States had the highest SMIR at 76%, whereas Russia had the lowest at 21.7%. Incidence and mortality were close between male and female subjects in Japan, Indonesia, Mexico, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The incidence and mortality in male subjects in the United States, Russia, China and Brazil were two or more times those of female subjects. Gender difference was highest among patients aged 40–69 years. Conclusion: Trends and gender differences in ASIR, ASMR and age-standardised DALY for OC vary in the 10 most populous countries. Government cancer programs are often expensive to run, especially in countries with large populations. Policy makers need to take these differences into account when formulating policies.

ORL ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Carlos M. Chiesa-Estomba ◽  
Manuel Graña ◽  
Alfonso Medela ◽  
Jon A. Sistiaga-Suarez ◽  
Jerome R. Lechien ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Despite multiple prognostic indicators described for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC), its management still continues to be a matter of debate. Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence that enables computers to learn from historical data, gather insights, and make predictions about new data using the model learned. Therefore, it can be a potential tool in the field of head and neck cancer. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We conducted a systematic review. <b><i>Results:</i></b> A total of 81 manuscripts were revised, and 46 studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 38 were excluded for the following reasons: use of a classical statistical method (<i>N</i> = 16), nonspecific for OCSCC (<i>N</i> = 15), and not being related to OCSCC survival (<i>N</i> = 7). In total, 8 studies were included in the final analysis. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> ML has the potential to significantly advance research in the field of OCSCC. Advantages are related to the use and training of ML models because of their capability to continue training continuously when more data become available. Future ML research will allow us to improve and democratize the application of algorithms to improve the prediction of cancer prognosis and its management worldwide.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (01) ◽  
Kevin Chew Figueroa ◽  
Bofan Song ◽  
Sumsum Sunny ◽  
Shaobai Li ◽  
Keerthi Gurushanth ◽  

Rajeh M. Al-Sharif ◽  
Dalia Y. Batwa ◽  
Turki N. Alotaibi ◽  
Naif M. Alwadai ◽  
Abdullah H. Alsharif ◽  

Oral cancer is a subset of head and neck cancer and usually refers to different neoplastic conditions that impact any tissue within the oral cavity. Evidence shows that these malignancies are associated with different complications over the affected patients. The present literature review will discuss the epidemiology and types of oral cancer based on evidence from relevant studies within the literature. Estimates show that oral cancer is a common condition with high prevalence rates globally. However, we have identified several factors across the different relevant investigations, including smoking, alcohol intake, age, socioeconomic status, immunocompromised state, and genetics. This might explain the inconsistent findings regarding the prevalence and mortality rates of the conditions among worldwide studies. Moreover, squamous cells carcinoma is the commonest type of oral cancer. However, other types might also be identified as adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, and lymphoma. These lesions can also be found at different places within the mouth cavity, including lips, tongue, and salivary glands. Therefore, healthcare authorities should plan adequate interventional strategies targeting the risk factors to properly control the disease and reduce its burden.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Fanglong Wu ◽  
Shimeng Wang ◽  
Qingxiang Zeng ◽  
Junjiang Liu ◽  
Jin Yang ◽  

AbstractCancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are highly heterogeneous and differentiated stromal cells that promote tumor progression via remodeling of extracellular matrix, maintenance of stemness, angiogenesis, and modulation of tumor metabolism. Aerobic glycolysis is characterized by an increased uptake of glucose for conversion into lactate under sufficient oxygen conditions, and this metabolic process occurs at the site of energy exchange between CAFs and cancer cells. As a hallmark of cancer, metabolic reprogramming of CAFs is defined as reverse Warburg effect (RWE), characterized by increased lactate, glutamine, and pyruvate, etc. derived from aerobic glycolysis. Given that the TGF-β signal cascade plays a critical role in RWE mainly through metabolic reprogramming related proteins including pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 (PKM2), however, the role of nuclear PKM2 in modifying glycolysis remains largely unknown. In this study, using a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments, we provide evidence that TGF-βRII overexpression suppresses glucose metabolism in CAFs by attenuating PKM2 nuclear translocation, thereby inhibiting oral cancer tumor growth. This study highlights a novel pathway that explains the role of TGF-βRII in CAFs glucose metabolism and suggests that targeting TGF-βRII in CAFs might represent a therapeutic approach for oral cancer.

Feifei Wang ◽  
Odjo G. Gouttia ◽  
Ling Wang ◽  
Aimin Peng

First-line treatments for oral cancer typically include surgery, radiation, and in some cases, chemotherapy. Radiation and oral cancer chemotherapeutics confer cytotoxicity largely by inducing DNA damage, underscoring the importance of the cellular DNA damage repair and response pathways in cancer therapy. However, tumor recurrence and acquired resistance, following the initial response to treatment, remains as a major clinical challenge. By analyzing oral tumor cells derived from the primary and recurrent tumors of the same patient, our study revealed upregulated PARP1 expression in the recurrent tumor cells. Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil treatment further augmented PARP1 expression in the recurrent, but not the primary, tumor cells. Post-treatment upregulation of PARP1 was dependent on the catalytic activities of PARP and CDK7. Consistent with the established function of PARP1 in DNA repair, we showed that overexpression of PARP1 rendered the primary tumor cells highly resistant to DNA damage treatment. Conversely, PARP inhibition partially reversed the treatment resistance in the recurrent tumor cells; combinatorial treatment using a PARP inhibitor and cisplatin/5-fluorouracil significantly sensitized the tumor response in vivo. Taken together, we reported here PARP1 upregulation as a clinically relevant mechanism involved in oral cancer recurrence, and suggested the clinical benefit of PARP inhibitors, currently approved for the treatment of several other types of cancer, in oral cancer.

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