tactile system
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
pp. 2105076
Joon‐Kyu Han ◽  
Il‐Woong Tcho ◽  
Seung‐Bae Jeon ◽  
Ji‐Man Yu ◽  
Weon‐Guk Kim ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 585 (1) ◽  
pp. 163-177
Shalini Mukhopadhyay ◽  
Jayendra Kumar ◽  
Basudeba Behera

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Mehdi Adibi ◽  
Ilan Lampl

In the natural environment, organisms are constantly exposed to a continuous stream of sensory input. The dynamics of sensory input changes with organism's behaviour and environmental context. The contextual variations may induce >100-fold change in the parameters of the stimulation that an animal experiences. Thus, it is vital for the organism to adapt to the new diet of stimulation. The response properties of neurons, in turn, dynamically adjust to the prevailing properties of sensory stimulation, a process known as “neuronal adaptation.” Neuronal adaptation is a ubiquitous phenomenon across all sensory modalities and occurs at different stages of processing from periphery to cortex. In spite of the wealth of research on contextual modulation and neuronal adaptation in visual and auditory systems, the neuronal and computational basis of sensory adaptation in somatosensory system is less understood. Here, we summarise the recent finding and views about the neuronal adaptation in the rodent whisker-mediated tactile system and further summarise the functional effect of neuronal adaptation on the response dynamics and encoding efficiency of neurons at single cell and population levels along the whisker-mediated touch system in rodents. Based on direct and indirect pieces of evidence presented here, we suggest sensory adaptation provides context-dependent functional mechanisms for noise reduction in sensory processing, salience processing and deviant stimulus detection, shift between integration and coincidence detection, band-pass frequency filtering, adjusting neuronal receptive fields, enhancing neural coding and improving discriminability around adapting stimuli, energy conservation, and disambiguating encoding of principal features of tactile stimuli.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Mark D. Fletcher

Cochlear implants (CIs) have been remarkably successful at restoring hearing in severely-to-profoundly hearing-impaired individuals. However, users often struggle to deconstruct complex auditory scenes with multiple simultaneous sounds, which can result in reduced music enjoyment and impaired speech understanding in background noise. Hearing aid users often have similar issues, though these are typically less acute. Several recent studies have shown that haptic stimulation can enhance CI listening by giving access to sound features that are poorly transmitted through the electrical CI signal. This “electro-haptic stimulation” improves melody recognition and pitch discrimination, as well as speech-in-noise performance and sound localization. The success of this approach suggests it could also enhance auditory perception in hearing-aid users and other hearing-impaired listeners. This review focuses on the use of haptic stimulation to enhance music perception in hearing-impaired listeners. Music is prevalent throughout everyday life, being critical to media such as film and video games, and often being central to events such as weddings and funerals. It represents the biggest challenge for signal processing, as it is typically an extremely complex acoustic signal, containing multiple simultaneous harmonic and inharmonic sounds. Signal-processing approaches developed for enhancing music perception could therefore have significant utility for other key issues faced by hearing-impaired listeners, such as understanding speech in noisy environments. This review first discusses the limits of music perception in hearing-impaired listeners and the limits of the tactile system. It then discusses the evidence around integration of audio and haptic stimulation in the brain. Next, the features, suitability, and success of current haptic devices for enhancing music perception are reviewed, as well as the signal-processing approaches that could be deployed in future haptic devices. Finally, the cutting-edge technologies that could be exploited for enhancing music perception with haptics are discussed. These include the latest micro motor and driver technology, low-power wireless technology, machine learning, big data, and cloud computing. New approaches for enhancing music perception in hearing-impaired listeners could substantially improve quality of life. Furthermore, effective haptic techniques for providing complex sound information could offer a non-invasive, affordable means for enhancing listening more broadly in hearing-impaired individuals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-35
Oliver Beren Kaul ◽  
Michael Rohs ◽  
Marc Mogalle ◽  
Benjamin Simon

Tactile patterns are a means to convey navigation instructions to pedestrians and are especially helpful for people with visual impairments. This article presents a concept to provide precise micro-navigation instructions through a tactile around-the-head display. Our system presents four tactile patterns for fundamental navigation instructions in conjunction with continuous directional guidance. We followed an iterative, user-centric approach to design the patterns for the fundamental navigation instructions, combined them with a continuous directional guidance stimulus, and tested our system with 13 sighted (blindfolded) and 2 blind participants in an obstacle course, including stairs. We optimized the patterns and validated the final prototype with another five blind participants in a follow-up study. The system steered our participants successfully with a 5.7 cm average absolute deviation from the optimal path. Our guidance is only a little less precise than the usual shoulder wobbling during normal walking and an order of magnitude more precise than previous tactile navigation systems. Our system allows various new use cases of micro-navigation for people with visual impairments, e.g., preventing collisions on a sidewalk or as an anti-veering tool. It also has applications in other areas, such as personnel working in low-vision environments (e.g., firefighters).

2021 ◽  
Adel Parvizi-Fard ◽  
Nima Salimi-Nezhad ◽  
Mahmood Amiri ◽  
Egidio Falotico ◽  
Cecilia Laschi

Abstract Touch and pain sensations are complementary aspects of daily life that convey crucial information about the environment while also providing protection to our body. Technological advancements in prosthesis design and control mechanisms assist amputees to regain lost function but often they have no meaningful tactile feedback or perception. In the present study, we propose a bio-inspired tactile system with a population of 23 digital afferents: 12 RA-I, 6 SA-I, and 5 nociceptors. Indeed, the functional concept of the nociceptor is implemented on the FPGA for the first time. One of the main features of biological tactile afferents is that their distal axon branches in the skin, creating complex receptive fields. Given these physiological observations, the bio-inspired afferents are randomly connected to the several neighboring mechanoreceptors with different weights to form their own receptive field. To test the performance of the proposed neuromorphic chip in sharpness detection, a robotic system with three-degree of freedom equipped with the tactile sensor indents the 3D-printed objects. Spike responses of the biomimetic afferents are then collected for analysis by rate and temporal coding algorithms. In this way, the impact of the innervation mechanism and collaboration of afferents and nociceptors on sharpness recognition are investigated. Our findings suggest that the synergy between sensory afferents and nociceptors conveys more information about tactile stimuli which in turn leads to the robustness of the proposed neuromorphic system against damage to the taxels or afferents. Moreover, it is illustrated that spiking activity of the biomimetic nociceptors is amplified as the sharpness increases which can be considered as a feedback mechanism for prosthesis protection. This neuromorphic approach advances the development of prosthesis to include the sensory feedback and to distinguish innocuous (non-painful) and noxious (painful) stimuli.

Scinob Kuroki ◽  
Masataka Sawayama ◽  
Shin'ya Nishida

Humans can haptically discriminate surface textures when there is a significant difference in the statistics of the surface profile. Previous studies on tactile texture discrimination have emphasized the perceptual effects of lower-order statistical features such as carving depth, inter-ridge distance, and anisotropy, which can be characterized by local amplitude spectra or spatial-frequency/orientation subband histograms. However, the real-world surfaces we encounter in everyday life also differ in the higher-order statistics, such as statistics about correlations of nearby spatial-frequencies/orientations. For another modality, vision, the human brain has the ability to utilize the textural differences in both higher- and lower-order image statistics. In this work, we examined whether the haptic texture perception can utilize higher-order surface statistics as visual texture perception does, by 3D-printing textured surfaces transcribed from different 'photos' of natural scenes such as stones and leaves. Even though the maximum carving depth was well above the haptic detection threshold, some texture pairs were hard to discriminate. Specifically, those texture pairs with similar amplitude spectra were difficult to discriminate, which suggests that the lower-order statistics have the dominant effect on tactile texture discrimination. To directly test the poor sensitivity of the tactile texture perception to higher-order surface statistics, we matched the lower-order statistics across different textures using a texture synthesis algorithm and found that haptic discrimination of the matched textures was nearly impossible unless the stimuli contained salient local features. We found no evidence for the ability of the human tactile system to use higher-order surface statistics for texture discrimination.

2021 ◽  
pp. 105-120
Jamie Chaves ◽  
Ashley Taylor

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Abdeldjallil Naceri ◽  
Yasemin B. Gultekin ◽  
Alessandro Moscatelli ◽  
Marc O. Ernst

Whenever we grasp and lift an object, our tactile system provides important information on the contact location and the force exerted on our skin. The human brain integrates signals from multiple sites for a coherent representation of object shape, inertia, weight, and other material properties. It is still an open question whether the control of grasp force occurs at the level of individual fingers or whether it is also influenced by the control and the signals from the other fingers of the same hand. In this work, we approached this question by asking participants to lift, transport, and replace a sensorized object, using three- and four-digit grasp. Tactile input was altered by covering participant's fingertips with a rubber thimble, which reduced the reliability of the tactile sensory input. In different experimental conditions, we covered between one and three fingers opposing the thumb. Normal forces at each finger and the thumb were recorded while grasping and holding the object, with and without the thimble. Consistently with previous studies, reducing tactile sensitivity increased the overall grasping force. The gasping force increased in the covered finger, whereas it did not change from baseline in the remaining bare fingers (except the thumb for equilibrium constraints). Digit placement and object tilt were not systematically affected by rubber thimble conditions. Our results suggest that, in each finger opposing thumb, digit normal force is controlled locally in response to the applied tactile perturbation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (6) ◽  
pp. eabe2943
Yuxiang Shi ◽  
Fan Wang ◽  
Jingwen Tian ◽  
Shuyao Li ◽  
Engang Fu ◽  

Tactile sensation plays important roles in virtual reality and augmented reality systems. Here, a self-powered, painless, and highly sensitive electro-tactile (ET) system for achieving virtual tactile experiences is proposed on the basis of triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and ET interface formed of ball-shaped electrode array. Electrostatic discharge triggered by TENG can induce notable ET stimulation, while controlled distance between the ET electrodes and human skin can regulate the induced discharge current. The ion bombardment technique has been used to enhance the electrification capability of triboelectric polymer. Accordingly, TENG with a contact area of 4 cm2 is capable of triggering discharge, leading to a compact system. In this skin-integrated ET interface, touching position and motion trace on the TENG surface can be precisely reproduced on skin. This TENG-based ET system can work for many fields, including virtual tactile displays, Braille instruction, intelligent protective suits, or even nerve stimulation.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document