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Updated Friday, 17 September 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Guoqing Wu ◽  
Zhaoshun Jiang ◽  
Yuxi Cai ◽  
Xixue Zhang ◽  
Yating Lv ◽  
...  

Objectives: Delayed neurocognitive recovery (DNR) seriously affects the post-operative recovery of elderly surgical patients, but there is still a lack of effective methods to recognize high-risk patients with DNR. This study proposed a machine learning method based on a multi-order brain functional connectivity (FC) network to recognize DNR.Method: Seventy-four patients who completed assessments were included in this study, in which 16/74 (21.6%) had DNR following surgery. Based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we first constructed low-order FC networks of 90 brain regions by calculating the correlation of brain region signal changing in the time dimension. Then, we established high-order FC networks by calculating correlations among each pair of brain regions. Afterward, we built sparse representation-based machine learning model to recognize DNR on the extracted multi-order FC network features. Finally, an independent testing was conducted to validate the established recognition model.Results: Three hundred ninety features of FC networks were finally extracted to identify DNR. After performing the independent-sample T test between these features and the categories, 15 features showed statistical differences (P < 0.05) and 3 features had significant statistical differences (P < 0.01). By comparing DNR and non-DNR patients’ brain region connection matrices, it is found that there are more connections among brain regions in DNR patients than in non-DNR patients. For the machine learning recognition model based on multi-feature combination, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the classifier reached 95.61, 92.00, 66.67, and 100.00%, respectively.Conclusion: This study not only reveals the significance of preoperative rs-fMRI in recognizing post-operative DNR in elderly patients but also establishes a promising machine learning method to recognize DNR.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kaan Mika ◽  
Richard Benton

The singular expression of insect olfactory receptors in specific populations of olfactory sensory neurons is fundamental to the encoding of odors in patterns of neuronal activity in the brain. How a receptor gene is selected, from among a large repertoire in the genome, to be expressed in a particular neuron is an outstanding question. Focusing on Drosophila melanogaster, where most investigations have been performed, but incorporating recent insights from other insect species, we review the multilevel regulatory mechanisms of olfactory receptor expression. We discuss how cis-regulatory elements, trans-acting factors, chromatin modifications, and feedback pathways collaborate to activate and maintain expression of the chosen receptor (and to suppress others), highlighting similarities and differences with the mechanisms underlying singular receptor expression in mammals. We also consider the plasticity of receptor regulation in response to environmental cues and internal state during the lifetime of an individual, as well as the evolution of novel expression patterns over longer timescales. Finally, we describe the mechanisms and potential significance of examples of receptor co-expression.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anne Sophie Grenier ◽  
Louise Lafontaine ◽  
Andréanne Sharp

It is well known and documented that sensory perception decreases with age. In the elderly population, hearing loss and reduced vestibular function are among the most prevalently affected senses. Two important side effects of sensory deprivation are cognitive decline and decrease in social participation. Hearing loss, vestibular function impairment, and cognitive decline all lead to a decrease in social participation. Altogether, these problems have a great impact on the quality of life of the elderly. This is why a rehabilitation program covering all of these aspects would therefore be useful for clinicians. It is well known that long-term music training can lead to cortical plasticity. Behavioral improvements have been measured for cognitive abilities and sensory modalities (auditory, motor, tactile, and visual) in healthy young adults. Based on these findings, it is possible to wonder if this kind of multisensory training would be an interesting therapy to not only improve communication but also help with posture and balance, cognitive abilities, and social participation. The aim of this review is to assess and validate the impact of music therapy in the context of hearing rehabilitation in older adults. Musical therapy seems to have a positive impact on auditory perception, posture and balance, social integration, and cognition. While the benefits seem obvious, the evidence in the literature is scarce. However, there is no reason not to recommend the use of music therapy as an adjunct to audiological rehabilitation in the elderly when possible. Further investigations are needed to conclude on the extent of the benefits that music therapy could bring to older adults. More data are needed to confirm which hearing abilities can be improved based on the many characteristics of hearing loss. There is also a need to provide a clear protocol for clinicians on how this therapy should be administered to offer the greatest possible benefits.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Feiling Lou ◽  
Jiejie Tao ◽  
Ronghui Zhou ◽  
Shuangli Chen ◽  
Andan Qian ◽  
...  

Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychiatric disorder in children, which is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI), the alterations of static and dynamic characteristics of intrinsic brain activity have been identified in patients with ADHD. Yet, it remains unclear whether the concordance among indices of dynamic R-fMRI is altered in ADHD.Methods: R-fMRI scans obtained from 50 patients with ADHD and 28 healthy controls (HC) were used for the current study. We calculated the regional dynamic changes in brain activity indices using the sliding-window method and compared the differences in variability of these indices between ADHD patients and HCs. Further, the concordance among these dynamic indices was calculated and compared. Finally, the relationship between variability/concordance of these indices and ADHD-relevant clinical test scores was investigated.Results: Patients with ADHD showed decreased variability of dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (dALFF) in the left middle frontal gyrus and increased one in right middle occipital gyrus, as compared with the HCs. Besides, ADHD patients showed decreased voxel-wise concordance in the left middle frontal gyrus. Further, lower voxel-wise concordance in ADHD’s left middle frontal gyrus was associated with more non-perseverative errors in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, which reflects worse cognitive control.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that variability and concordance in dynamic brain activity may serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis of ADHD. Further, the decreased voxel-wise concordance is associated with deficit in cognitive control in ADHD patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuejun Zhang ◽  
Zhixin Wu ◽  
Shuzhi Liu ◽  
Zhecheng Guo ◽  
Qilai Chen ◽  
...  

The interference of noise will cause the degradation of image quality, which can have a negative impact on the subsequent image processing and visual effect. Although the existing image denoising algorithms are relatively perfect, their computational efficiency is restricted by the performance of the computer, and the computational process consumes a lot of energy. In this paper, we propose a method for image denoising and recognition based on multi-conductance states of memristor devices. By regulating the evolution of Pt/ZnO/Pt memristor wires, 26 continuous conductance states were obtained. The image feature preservation and noise reduction are realized via the mapping between the conductance state and the image pixel. Furthermore, weight quantization of convolutional neural network is realized based on multi-conductance states. The simulation results show the feasibility of CNN for image denoising and recognition based on multi-conductance states. This method has a certain guiding significance for the construction of high-performance image noise reduction hardware system.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yulin Zhu ◽  
Jiang Wang ◽  
Huiyan Li ◽  
Chen Liu ◽  
Warren M. Grill

Clinically deployed deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease operates in an open loop with fixed stimulation parameters, and this may result in high energy consumption and suboptimal therapy. The objective of this manuscript is to establish, through simulation in a computational model, a closed-loop control system that can automatically adjust the stimulation parameters to recover normal activity in model neurons. Exaggerated beta band activity is recognized as a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease and beta band activity in model neurons of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) was used as the feedback signal to control DBS of the GPi. Traditional proportional controller and proportional-integral controller were not effective in eliminating the error between the target level of beta power and the beta power under Parkinsonian conditions. To overcome the difficulties in tuning the controller parameters and improve tracking performance in the case of changes in the plant, a supervisory control algorithm was implemented by introducing a Radial Basis Function (RBF) network to build the inverse model of the plant. Simulation results show the successful tracking of target beta power in the presence of changes in Parkinsonian state as well as during dynamic changes in the target level of beta power. Our computational study suggests the feasibility of the RBF network-driven supervisory control algorithm for real-time modulation of DBS parameters for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zheyu Feng ◽  
Asako Mitsuto Nagase ◽  
Kenji Morita

Procrastination is the voluntary but irrational postponing of a task despite being aware that the delay can lead to worse consequences. It has been extensively studied in psychological field, from contributing factors, to theoretical models. From value-based decision making and reinforcement learning (RL) perspective, procrastination has been suggested to be caused by non-optimal choice resulting from cognitive limitations. Exactly what sort of cognitive limitations are involved, however, remains elusive. In the current study, we examined if a particular type of cognitive limitation, namely, inaccurate valuation resulting from inadequate state representation, would cause procrastination. Recent work has suggested that humans may adopt a particular type of state representation called the successor representation (SR) and that humans can learn to represent states by relatively low-dimensional features. Combining these suggestions, we assumed a dimension-reduced version of SR. We modeled a series of behaviors of a “student” doing assignments during the school term, when putting off doing the assignments (i.e., procrastination) is not allowed, and during the vacation, when whether to procrastinate or not can be freely chosen. We assumed that the “student” had acquired a rigid reduced SR of each state, corresponding to each step in completing an assignment, under the policy without procrastination. The “student” learned the approximated value of each state which was computed as a linear function of features of the states in the rigid reduced SR, through temporal-difference (TD) learning. During the vacation, the “student” made decisions at each time-step whether to procrastinate based on these approximated values. Simulation results showed that the reduced SR-based RL model generated procrastination behavior, which worsened across episodes. According to the values approximated by the “student,” to procrastinate was the better choice, whereas not to procrastinate was mostly better according to the true values. Thus, the current model generated procrastination behavior caused by inaccurate value approximation, which resulted from the adoption of the reduced SR as state representation. These findings indicate that the reduced SR, or more generally, the dimension reduction in state representation, can be a potential form of cognitive limitation that leads to procrastination.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Guanmin Quan ◽  
Ranran Ban ◽  
Jia-Liang Ren ◽  
Yawu Liu ◽  
Weiwei Wang ◽  
...  

At present, it is still challenging to predict the clinical outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In this retrospective study, we explored whether radiomics features extracted from fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images can predict clinical outcome of patients with AIS. Patients with AIS were divided into a training (n = 110) and an external validation (n = 80) sets. A total of 753 radiomics features were extracted from each FLAIR and ADC image of the 190 patients. Interquartile range (IQR), Wilcoxon rank sum test, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) were used to reduce the feature dimension. The six strongest radiomics features were related to an unfavorable outcome of AIS. A logistic regression analysis was employed for selection of potential predominating clinical and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) factors. Subsequently, we developed several models based on clinical and conventional MRI factors and radiomics features to predict the outcome of AIS patients. For predicting unfavorable outcome [modified Rankin scale (mRS) > 2] in the training set, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of ADC radiomics model was 0.772, FLAIR radiomics model 0.731, ADC and FLAIR radiomics model 0.815, clinical model 0.791, and clinical and conventional MRI model 0.782. In the external validation set, the AUCs for the prediction with ADC radiomics model was 0.792, FLAIR radiomics model 0.707, ADC and FLAIR radiomics model 0.825, clinical model 0.763, and clinical and conventional MRI model 0.751. When adding radiomics features to the combined model, the AUCs for predicting unfavorable outcome in the training and external validation sets were 0.926 and 0.864, respectively. Our results indicate that the radiomics features extracted from FLAIR and ADC can be instrumental biomarkers to predict unfavorable clinical outcome of AIS and would additionally improve predictive performance when adding to combined model.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tushar Chauhan ◽  
Timothée Masquelier ◽  
Benoit R. Cottereau

The early visual cortex is the site of crucial pre-processing for more complex, biologically relevant computations that drive perception and, ultimately, behaviour. This pre-processing is often studied under the assumption that neural populations are optimised for the most efficient (in terms of energy, information, spikes, etc.) representation of natural statistics. Normative models such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Sparse Coding (SC) consider the phenomenon as a generative, minimisation problem which they assume the early cortical populations have evolved to solve. However, measurements in monkey and cat suggest that receptive fields (RFs) in the primary visual cortex are often noisy, blobby, and symmetrical, making them sub-optimal for operations such as edge-detection. We propose that this suboptimality occurs because the RFs do not emerge through a global minimisation of generative error, but through locally operating biological mechanisms such as spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). Using a network endowed with an abstract, rank-based STDP rule, we show that the shape and orientation tuning of the converged units are remarkably close to single-cell measurements in the macaque primary visual cortex. We quantify this similarity using physiological parameters (frequency-normalised spread vectors), information theoretic measures [Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence and Gini index], as well as simulations of a typical electrophysiology experiment designed to estimate orientation tuning curves. Taken together, our results suggest that compared to purely generative schemes, process-based biophysical models may offer a better description of the suboptimality observed in the early visual cortex.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Meijie Liu ◽  
Baojuan Li ◽  
Dewen Hu

Machine learning methods have been frequently applied in the field of cognitive neuroscience in the last decade. A great deal of attention has been attracted to introduce machine learning methods to study the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in order to find out its neurophysiological underpinnings. In this paper, we presented a comprehensive review about the previous studies since 2011, which applied machine learning methods to analyze the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of autistic individuals and the typical controls (TCs). The all-round process was covered, including feature construction from raw fMRI data, feature selection methods, machine learning methods, factors for high classification accuracy, and critical conclusions. Applying different machine learning methods and fMRI data acquired from different sites, classification accuracies were obtained ranging from 48.3% up to 97%, and informative brain regions and networks were located. Through thorough analysis, high classification accuracies were found to usually occur in the studies which involved task-based fMRI data, single dataset for some selection principle, effective feature selection methods, or advanced machine learning methods. Advanced deep learning together with the multi-site Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) dataset became research trends especially in the recent 4 years. In the future, advanced feature selection and machine learning methods combined with multi-site dataset or easily operated task-based fMRI data may appear to have the potentiality to serve as a promising diagnostic tool for ASD.


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