control mechanisms
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2023 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Christopher Brant ◽  
Prakash Shrestha ◽  
Benjamin Mixon-Baca ◽  
Kejun Chen ◽  
Said Varlioglu ◽  

Information flow tracking was proposed more than 40 years ago to address the limitations of access control mechanisms to guarantee the confidentiality and integrity of information flowing within a system, but has not yet been widely applied in practice for security solutions. Here, we survey and systematize literature on dynamic information flow tracking (DIFT) to discover challenges and opportunities to make it practical and effective for security solutions. We focus on common knowledge in the literature and lingering research gaps from two dimensions— (i) the layer of abstraction where DIFT is implemented (software, software/hardware, or hardware) and (ii) the security goal (confidentiality and/or integrity). We observe that two major limitations hinder the practical application of DIFT for on-the-fly security applications: (i) high implementation overhead and (ii) incomplete information flow tracking (low accuracy). We posit, after review of the literature, that addressing these major impedances via hardware parallelism can potentially unleash DIFT’s great potential for systems security, as it can allow security policies to be implemented in a built-in and standardized fashion. Furthermore, we provide recommendations for the next generation of practical and efficient DIFT systems with an eye towards hardware-supported implementations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sangluo Sun ◽  
Xiaowei Ge ◽  
Xiaowei Wen ◽  
Fernando Barrio ◽  
Ying Zhu ◽  

Social networks are widely used as a fast and ubiquitous information-sharing medium. The mass spread of food rumours has seriously invaded public’s healthy life and impacted food production. It can be argued that the government, companies, and the media have the responsibility to send true anti-rumour messages to reduce panic, and the risks involved in different forms of communication to the public have not been properly assessed. The manuscript develops an empirical analysis model from 683 food anti-rumour cases and 7,967 data of the users with top comments to test the influence of the strength of rumour/anti-rumour on rumour control. Furthermore, dividing the users into three categories, Leaders, Chatters, and General Public, and study the influence of human characteristics on the relationship between the strength of rumour/anti-rumour and rumour control by considering the different human characteristics as moderator variables. The results showed that anti-rumours have a significant positive impact on the control of rumours; the ambiguity of rumours has a significant negative impact on the Positive Comment Index (PCI) in rumour control. Further, the Leaders increased the overall level of PCI, but negatively adjusted the relationship between evidence and PCI; the Chatters and the General Public reduced the overall level of PCI, and Chatters weakened the relationship between the specific type of anti-rumour form and PCI while the General Public enhanced the relationship between the specific type of anti-rumour form and PCI. In the long run, the role of Leaders needs to be further improved, and the importance of the General Public is growing in the food rumour control process.

2022 ◽  
Benedikt Berninger ◽  
Wenqiang Fan ◽  
Jerónimo Jurado-Arjona ◽  
Gregorio Alanis-Lobato ◽  
Sophie Péron ◽  

Most adult hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) remain quiescent with only a minor portion undergoing active proliferation and neurogenesis. The molecular mechanisms that trigger eventually the transition from quiescence to activation are still poorly understood. Here, we found the activity of the transcriptional activator Yap1 to be enriched in active NSCs. Genetic deletion of Yap1 led to a significant reduction in the relative proportion of active NSCs supporting a physiological role of Yap1 in regulating the transition from quiescence to activation. Overexpression of wild type Yap1 in adult NSCs did not induce NSC activation suggesting tight upstream control mechanisms, but overexpression of a gain-of-function mutant (Yap1-5SA) elicited cell cycle entry in NSCs and hilar astrocytes. Consistent with a role of Yap1 in NSC activation, single cell RNA sequencing revealed the partial induction of an activated NSC gene expression program. Yet, Yap1-5SA expression also induced Taz and other key components of the Yap/Taz regulon previously identified in glioblastoma stem cell-like cells. Consequently, dysregulated Yap1 activity led to repression of hippocampal neurogenesis, promoting aberrant differentiation instead.

Song Li ◽  
Mustafa Ozkan Yerebakan ◽  
Yue Luo ◽  
Ben Amaba ◽  
William Swope ◽  

Abstract Voice recognition has become an integral part of our lives, commonly used in call centers and as part of virtual assistants. However, voice recognition is increasingly applied to more industrial uses. Each of these use cases has unique characteristics that may impact the effectiveness of voice recognition, which could impact industrial productivity, performance, or even safety. One of the most prominent among them is the unique background noises that are dominant in each industry. The existence of different machinery and different work layouts are primary contributors to this. Another important characteristic is the type of communication that is present in these settings. Daily communication often involves longer sentences uttered under relatively silent conditions, whereas communication in industrial settings is often short and conducted in loud conditions. In this study, we demonstrated the importance of taking these two elements into account by comparing the performances of two voice recognition algorithms under several background noise conditions: a regular Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based voice recognition algorithm to an Auto Speech Recognition (ASR) based model with a denoising module. Our results indicate that there is a significant performance drop between the typical background noise use (white noise) and the rest of the background noises. Also, our custom ASR model with the denoising module outperformed the CNN based model with an overall performance increase between 14-35% across all background noises. . Both results give proof that specialized voice recognition algorithms need to be developed for these environments to reliably deploy them as control mechanisms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mingming Shi ◽  
Yan Chai ◽  
Jianning Zhang ◽  
Xin Chen

Neuronal death and inflammatory response are two common pathological hallmarks of acute central nervous system injury and chronic degenerative disorders, both of which are closely related to cognitive and motor dysfunction associated with various neurological diseases. Neurological diseases are highly heterogeneous; however, they share a common pathogenesis, that is, the aberrant accumulation of misfolded/unfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Fortunately, the cell has intrinsic quality control mechanisms to maintain the proteostasis network, such as chaperone-mediated folding and ER-associated degradation. However, when these control mechanisms fail, misfolded/unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen and contribute to ER stress. ER stress has been implicated in nearly all neurological diseases. ER stress initiates the unfolded protein response to restore proteostasis, and if the damage is irreversible, it elicits intracellular cascades of death and inflammation. With the growing appreciation of a functional association between ER stress and neurological diseases and with the improved understanding of the multiple underlying molecular mechanisms, pharmacological and genetic targeting of ER stress are beginning to emerge as therapeutic approaches for neurological diseases.

Lukas Isenberg ◽  
Susanne Kreiter ◽  
Roland Helm ◽  
Christian Schmitz

AbstractThe use of marketing and sales control mechanisms is a core management activity for multinational corporations. However, research on controlling marketing and sales of international subsidiaries is scarce. In particular, the influence of a firm’s economic and cultural environment on different control mechanisms has not been thoroughly examined yet. In attempting to fill these gaps, we build on Jaworski’s (J Mark 52:23–39, 1988) framework from a subsidiary perspective on marketing and sales controls, applied by the headquarters of medium-sized industrial goods corporations. Through a rival model analysis, we determine the impact of the local environmental context on marketing and sales control types exerted by headquarters on subsidiaries located in foreign countries. To analyze the proposed model, this study deploys survey data of 184 subsidiaries from different industries and different European countries with headquarters in Switzerland. The results show that while environmental factors influence the marketing and sales control configurations, the effectiveness of marketing and sales controls is not contingent on environmental factors.

2022 ◽  
Shuai Wang ◽  
Hui Yong ◽  
Cuiqin Zhang ◽  
Kang Kang ◽  
Mingxue Song ◽  

Abstract Sterile-α and toll/interleukin 1 receptor motif containing protein 1 (SARM1) is the central executioner of programmed axon death (Wallerian degeneration). Although it has been confirmed to have a mitochondrial targeting sequence and can bind to and stabilize PINK1 on mitochondria, the biological significance for mitochondrial localization of SARM1 is still unclear. The relationship between mitochondrial quality control mechanisms and programmed axon death also needs to be clarified. Chronic acrylamide (ACR) intoxication cause typical pathology of axon degeneration involving early axon loss. Here, we demonstrated that the SARM1 dependent Wallerian axon self-destruction pathway was activated following ACR intoxication. Moreover, increased SARM1 was observed on the mitochondria, which interfered with the mitochondrial quality control mechanisms. As a protective response to stress, mitochondrial components enriched in SARM1 were isolated from the mitochondrial network through an increased fission process and were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. Importantly, rapamycin (RAPA) administration eliminated mitochondrial accumulated SARM1 and inhibited axon loss. Thus, mitochondrial localization of SARM1 may be complement to the coordinated activity of NMNAT2 and SARM1, and may be part of the self-limiting molecular mechanisms of programmed axon death. In the early latent period, the mitochondrial localization of SARM1 will help it to be isolated by the mitochondrial network and to be degraded through mitophagy to maintain local axon homeostasis. When the mitochondrial quality control mechanisms are broken down, SARM1 will cause irreversible damage for axon death.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 240
Shiqing Song ◽  
Qingqing Li ◽  
Yan Jiang ◽  
Yong Liu ◽  
Aidi Xu ◽  

Background: Overweight people have been revealed to have poor cognitive flexibility. Cognitive flexibility reflects proactive and reactive control abilities. However, the impairment had not been explicitly positioned at the cognitive stage. Therefore, this study provides increased support for impairment of cognitive flexibility due to overweight. Method: The study included 34 overweight and 35 normal-weight participants. They were required to complete the food and flower target AX-continuous performance test (AX–CPT), including the resting-state fMRI and cue-triggered food craving subscales. We compared the performance difference between the two tasks. Furthermore, we investigated whether the cue-triggered food cravings and the corresponding brain regions mediated the effect of overweight on the two control mechanisms. Result: Significant differences were found only in the food target AX-CPT task, where overweight participants performed worse. Cue-triggered food cravings mediated this relationship. Additionally, we found that the brain regions associated with cue-triggered food cravings (bilateral SFG) can completely mediate the relationship between BMI and the z-value of the fat mass index and sensitivity to proactive control. Conclusion: In the food target task, overweight participants performed worse in both control mechanisms. Moreover, we also revealed the potential mechanism by which being overweight might affect the two control mechanisms through cue-triggered food cravings.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 344
Anika Weber ◽  
Julian Werth ◽  
Gaspar Epro ◽  
Daniel Friemert ◽  
Ulrich Hartmann ◽  

Use of head-mounted displays (HMDs) and hand-held displays (HHDs) may affect the effectiveness of stability control mechanisms and impair resistance to falls. This study aimed to examine whether the ability to control stability during locomotion is diminished while using HMDs and HHDs. Fourteen healthy adults (21–46 years) were assessed under single-task (no display) and dual-task (spatial 2-n-back presented on the HMD or the HHD) conditions while performing various locomotor tasks. An optical motion capture system and two force plates were used to assess locomotor stability using an inverted pendulum model. For perturbed standing, 57% of the participants were not able to maintain stability by counter-rotation actions when using either display, compared to the single-task condition. Furthermore, around 80% of participants (dual-task) compared to 50% (single-task) showed a negative margin of stability (i.e., an unstable body configuration) during recovery for perturbed walking due to a diminished ability to increase their base of support effectively. However, no evidence was found for HMDs or HHDs affecting stability during unperturbed locomotion. In conclusion, additional cognitive resources required for dual-tasking, using either display, are suggested to result in delayed response execution for perturbed standing and walking, consequently diminishing participants’ ability to use stability control mechanisms effectively and increasing the risk of falls.

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