index modulation
Recently Published Documents





Kosuke Suzuki ◽  
Koichi Adachi ◽  
Mai Ohta ◽  
Osamu Takyu ◽  
Takeo Fujii

Ali Fazeli ◽  
Ha H. Nguyen ◽  
H. D. Tuan ◽  
H. V. Poor

Micromachines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1579
Jing Lv ◽  
Razvan Stoian ◽  
Guanghua Cheng ◽  
Kedian Wang

Slit-shaped laser beams focused in bulk optical materials can realize embedded waveguides with circular cross sections consisting of positive index change type I traces. In these kinds of waveguide traces, a peculiar periodical refractive index modulation was observed in type I waveguides with two different femtosecond lasers. The direction of refractive index modulation can be controlled with the slit configuration, and its period can be controlled by mechanical perturbation of the stages and the scanning speed. We argue that platform perturbation and dynamical thermal transport processes during the scan are generating factors in the appearance of this modulation. The embedded microstructures in waveguides can provide spectrum modulation, which may have potential applications in optical sensing, filtering, and phase control.

Shuping Dang ◽  
Marco Di Renzo ◽  
Miaowen Wen ◽  
Marwa Chafii ◽  
Youngwook Ko ◽  

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (21) ◽  
pp. 7263
Tuncay Eren ◽  
Aydin Akan

Computational complexity is one of the drawbacks of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-index modulation (IM) systems. In this study, a novel IM technique is proposed for OFDM systems by considering the null subcarrier locations (NSC-OFDM-IM) within a predetermined group in the frequency domain. So far, a variety of index modulation techniques have been proposed for OFDM systems. However, they are almost always based on modulating the active subcarrier indices. We propose a novel index modulation technique by employing the part of the transmitted bit group into the null subcarrier location index within the predefined size of the subgroup. The novelty comes from modulating null subcarriers rather than actives and reducing the computational complexity of the index selection and index detection algorithms at the transmitter and receiver, respectively. The proposed method is physically straightforward and easy to implement owing to the size of the subgroups, which is defined as a power of two. Based on the results of our simulations, it appeared that the proposed NSC-OFDM-IM does not suffer from any performance degradation compared to the existing OFDM-IM, while achieving better bit error rate (BER) performance and improved spectral efficiency (SE) compared to conventional OFDM. Moreover, in terms of computational complexity, the proposed approach has a significantly reduced complexity over the traditional OFDM-IM scheme.

2021 ◽  
Indrarini Dyah Irawati ◽  
Gelar Budiman ◽  
Kholidiyah Masykuroh ◽  
Zein Hanni Pradana ◽  
Arfianto Fahmi

Audio Watermarking is a method to insert a copyright marker on audio. This method inserts a watermark in the information form and in a way that does not damage the audio. This technique is one of the ways to solve the problem of copyright infringement. The embedded watermark has to meet the condition of not damaging the audio and must have robustness, imperceptibility, and good capacity. The data hiding technique use the combined method of Lifting Wavelet Transform (LWT), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), QR Decomposition and Reconstruction, and Cartesian-Polar Transformation (CPT) based on Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) with the secured and compressed watermark using Compressive Sampling (CS) technique. The proposed scheme is blind Audio Watermarking as it no needs for original audio in the detection process. The combination of methods overcomes multiple attacks with guaranteed quality watermarking and high capacity. Compared to the existing technique, the data hiding technique can withstand LPF attacks, Resampling, Linear speed change (LSC), and MP3 compression. This proposed technique is also secured due to the coded watermark by a particular random key using CS. Combining CS and Audio Watermarking techniques can perform well in capacity, imperceptibility, security, and attack resistance.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document