second order
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Erich Grädel ◽  
Richard Wilke

Team semantics is the mathematical basis of modern logics of dependence and independence. In contrast to classical Tarski semantics, a formula is evaluated not for a single assignment of values to the free variables, but on a set of such assignments, called a team. Team semantics is appropriate for a purely logical understanding of dependency notions, where only the presence or absence of data matters, but being based on sets, it does not take into account multiple occurrences of data values. It is therefore insufficient in scenarios where such multiplicities matter, in particular for reasoning about probabilities and statistical independencies. Therefore, an extension from teams to multiteams (i.e. multisets of assignments) has been proposed by several authors. In this paper we aim at a systematic development of logics of dependence and independence based on multiteam semantics. We study atomic dependency properties of finite multiteams and discuss the appropriate meaning of logical operators to extend the atomic dependencies to full-fledged logics for reasoning about dependence properties in a multiteam setting. We explore properties and expressive power of a wide spectrum of different multiteam logics and compare them to second-order logic and to logics with team semantics. In many cases the results resemble what is known in team semantics, but there are also interesting differences. While in team semantics, the combination of inclusion and exclusion dependencies leads to a logic with the full power of both independence logic and existential second-order logic, independence properties of multiteams are not definable by any combination of properties that are downwards closed or union closed and thus are strictly more powerful than inclusion-exclusion logic. We also study the relationship of logics with multiteam semantics with existential second-order logic for a specific class of metafinite structures. It turns out that inclusion-exclusion logic can be characterised in a precise sense by the Presburger fragment of this logic, but for capturing independence, we need to go beyond it and add some form of multiplication. Finally, we also consider multiteams with weights in the reals and study the expressive power of formulae by means of topological properties.

Chapkit Charnsamorn ◽  
Suphongsa Khetkeeree

The existed interpolation method, based on the second-order tetration polynomial, has the asymmetric property. The interpolation results, for each considering region, give individual characteristics. Although the interpolation performance has been better than the conventional methods, the symmetric property for signal interpolation is also necessary. In this paper, we propose the symmetric interpolation formulas derived from the second-order tetration polynomial. The combination of the forward and backward operations was employed to construct two types of the symmetric interpolation. Several resolutions of the fundamental signals were used to evaluate the signal reconstruction performance. The results show that the proposed interpolations can be used to reconstruct the fundamental signal and its peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) is superior to the conventional interpolation methods, except the cubic spline interpolation for the sine wave signal. However, the visual results show that it has a small difference. Moreover, our proposed interpolations converge to the steady-state faster than the cubic spline interpolation. In addition, the option number increasing will reinforce their sensitivity.

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