drug use
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2022 ◽  
Vol 101 ◽  
pp. 103571
Sophia E. Schroeder ◽  
Kerryn Drysdale ◽  
Lise Lafferty ◽  
Eileen Baldry ◽  
Alison D. Marshall ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (1) ◽  
pp. 39-53
Ziad Ghantous ◽  
Victoria Ahmad ◽  
Rita Khoury

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Chloe J. Jordan ◽  
Zheng-Xiong Xi

Understanding risk factors for substance use disorders (SUD) can facilitate medication development for SUD treatment. While a rich literature exists discussing environmental factors that influence SUD, fewer articles have focused on genetic factors that convey vulnerability to drug use. Methods to identify SUD risk genes include Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and transgenic approaches. GWAS have identified hundreds of gene variants or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, few genes identified by GWAS have been verified by clinical or preclinical studies. In contrast, significant progress has been made in transgenic approaches to identify risk genes for SUD. In this article, we review recent progress in identifying candidate genes contributing to drug use and addiction using transgenic approaches. A central hypothesis is if a particular gene variant (e.g., resulting in reduction or deletion of a protein) is associated with increases in drug self-administration or relapse to drug seeking, this gene variant may be considered a risk factor for drug use and addiction. Accordingly, we identified several candidate genes such as those that encode dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, mGluR2, M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which appear to meet the risk-gene criteria when their expression is decreased. Here, we describe the role of these receptors in drug reward and addiction, and then summarize major findings from the gene-knockout mice or rats in animal models of addiction. Lastly, we briefly discuss future research directions in identifying addiction-related risk genes and in risk gene-based medication development for the treatment of addiction.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Jeevan Fernando ◽  
Jan Stochl ◽  
Karen D. Ersche

Drugs of abuse are widely known to worsen mental health problems, but this relationship may not be a simple causational one. Whether or not a person is susceptible to the negative effects of drugs of abuse may not only be determined by their addictive properties, but also the users’ chronotype, which determines their daily activity patterns. The present study investigates the relationship between chronotype, drug use and mental health problems in a cross-sectional community sample. Participants (n = 209) completed a selection of questionnaires online, including the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, the Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. We conducted multiple regression models to determine relationships between participants’ chronotype and their reported mental health symptoms and then estimated mediation models to investigate the extent to which their drug consumption accounted for the identified associations. Chronotype was significantly associated with participants’ overall mental health (β = 0.16, p = 0.022) and their anxiety levels (β = 0.18, p = 0.009) but not with levels of depression or stress. However, both relationships were fully mediated by participants’ overall drug consumption. Thus, late chronotypes, so-called “night owls”, not only use more drugs but consequently have an increased risk for developing anxiety and deteriorating mental health status. This group may be particularly vulnerable to the negative psychological effects of drugs. Our results point toward the importance of considering chronotype in designing preventative and therapeutic innovations, specifically for anxiety, which at present has been largely neglected.

Matthew O’Donnell ◽  
Honora Englander ◽  
Luke Strnad ◽  
Castigliano M. Bhamidipati ◽  
Evan Shalen ◽  

Salomeh Keyhani ◽  
Beth E. Cohen ◽  
Marzieh Vali ◽  
Katherine J. Hoggatt ◽  
Dawn M. Bravata ◽  

Abstract Background Evidence on the cardiovascular health effects of cannabis use is limited. We designed a prospective cohort study of older Veterans (66 to 68 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) to understand the cardiovascular consequences of cannabis use. We describe the cohort construction, baseline characteristics, and health behaviors that were associated with smoking cannabis. Objective To understand the cardiovascular consequences of cannabis use. Design We designed a prospective cohort study of older Veterans (66 to 68 years) with CAD. Participants A total of 1,015 current cannabis smokers and 3,270 non-cannabis smokers with CAD. Main Measures Using logistic regression, we examined the association of baseline variables with smoking cannabis in the past 30 days. Results The current cannabis smokers and non-current smokers were predominantly male (97.2% vs 97.1%, p=0.96). Characteristics associated with recent cannabis use in multivariable analyses included lack of a high school education (odds ratio [OR] 2.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10 to 4.19), financial difficulty (OR 1.47, 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.11), tobacco use (OR 3.02, 95% CI: 1.66 to 5.48), current drug use (OR 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06 to 7.46), and prior drug use (OR 2.84, 95% CI: 2.11 to 3.82). In contrast, compared to individuals with 0 to 1 comorbid conditions, those with 5 chronic conditions or more (OR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.70) were less likely to smoke cannabis. Conclusions In this older high-risk cohort, smoking cannabis was associated with higher social and behavioral risk, but with fewer chronic health conditions.

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