Drug Use
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2021 ◽  
Ayse Irem Yasin ◽  
Atakan Topcu ◽  
Meysere Nur Akuc ◽  
Hacı Mehmet Türk ◽  
Pinar Soysal

Aim: To compare anticholinergic burden (ACB) in older patients with and without cancer and evaluate the effects of ACB on geriatric syndromes. Methods: A total of 291 patients from the geriatric clinic and 301 patients from the oncology clinic were evaluated. ACB <2 was categorized as low ACB and ACB ≥2 was categorized as high ACB. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed on patients from the geriatric clinic. Results: ACB scores were significantly higher in patients without cancer compared with those with cancer (p < 0.005). Number of falls and Geriatric Depression Scale 15 scores were higher and Mini-Nutritional Assessment and Barthel/Lawton activities of daily living scores were lower in geriatric patients with high ACB scores compared with those with low ACB scores (p < 0.005). Conclusion: It is crucial to understand the potential effects of ACB for rational drug use and optimum cancer management in older patients with cancer.

Changlong He ◽  
Chengcheng Wei ◽  
Jun Wen ◽  
Shi Chen ◽  
Ling Chen ◽  

Abstract Background By comparing the detection rate and type of targeted gene mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between amplification refractory mutation system PCR (ARMS-PCR) and next-generation sequencing (NGS), the characteristics and application advantages of non-small cell lung cancer detection are explained, providing a basis for clinicians to effectively select the corresponding detection methods. Methods and materials The cases of targeted genes for lung cancer were selected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2016 to October 2020. A sample of 4467 cases was selected, and they were diagnosed with NSCLC by Pathological biopsy. Sample sources include surgical resection, bronchoscope biopsy, metastatic biopsy, blood, sputum, cytology of pleural effusion. Among them, 3665 cases were detected by ARMS-PCR technique, and 802 cases were detected by NGS technology. The detection rate and type of ARMS-PCR and NGS techniques for EGFR gene mutations (including exon 18, exon 19, exon 20, exon 21 and so on) in different NSCLC samples were compared, respectively. Results The total mutation rate of EGFR gene detected by ARMS-PCR was 47.6% while 42.4% detected by NGS which indicated that there was a significant difference between the two methods in detecting total mutation of EGFR gene (P < 0.001). In different exons, the EGFR mutation rate detected by two methods is various. The mutation rate of exon 19 by ARMS-PCR detection was evidently higher than that of NGS detection, while the mutation rate of exons 20 and 21 by ARMS-PCR detection were statistically significantly lower than that of NGS detection. Moreover, the multiple mutation rate detected by NGS was 16.3% which was much higher than the 2.7% detected by ARMS-PCR with statistically different. Conclusion It showed that NGS could direct the drug use for the resistant patients. However, some rare loci could be detected by NGS but the importance and directed meaning are still unknown and the number of rare mutations is rare too. Further research on new biomarkers and technique is still needed for early diagnosis, directing drug use and assessing the therapy prognosis.

2021 ◽  
Tesfaye s MOGES ◽  
Edward R CACHAY ◽  
Huifang QIN ◽  
Laura BAMFORD ◽  
David J GRELOTTI ◽  

Abstract Background: Little is known regarding the degree to which substance and alcohol use effects on HIV viral suppression are mediated through medication adherence. We hypothesized that the total effects of such use are mediated through adherence. Methods: We included patients with HIV (PWH) receiving care at an urban academic HIV clinic between 2014 and 2018. Eligible patients were those prescribed antiretroviral therapy who completed both patient reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires, and had subsequent plasma viral load (pVL) measurements. Measures included assessments of alcohol use (AUDIT-C), drug use (ASSIST), and self-reported adherence. Substances found in bivariate analysis to predict detectable pVL were modeled separately for mediation effects through adherence. We report natural direct (NDE) and indirect effect (NIE), marginal total effect (MTE) and percentage mediated. Results: Among 3125 Patients who met eligibility criteria, percentages of current use by category were: hazardous alcohol 25.8%, cannabis 27.1%, amphetamines 13.1%, inhalants 11.9%, cocaine 5.3%, sedative-hypnotics 4.5%, opioids 2.9%, and hallucinogens 2.3%. Excellent adherence was reported in 58% and 10% had detectable pVL. Except for sedatives use of other ascertained substances was significantly associated with worse adherence. Bivariate predictors of detectable pVL were [OR(95% CI)]: amphetamine use 2.4 (1.8 -3.2 ) and opioid use 2.3 (1.3 - 4.0) . The percentage mediated by adherence was 36% for amphetamine use, 26.5% for opioid use, and 39% for multiple substance use. Conclusion: Use of amphetamines, opioids, and multiple substances predicted detectable pVL. However, less than 40% of effects were mediated by self-reported adherence.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 3040
Chiara Mondin ◽  
Samuele Trestini ◽  
Angela Trocino ◽  
Guido Di Martino

This research evaluates the economic sustainability of rabbit farms using different housing systems—bicellular (BI), conventional dual-purpose (DP) and enriched cages designed according to the World Rabbit Science Association guidelines (WRSA)—through a field-based study involving six farms over the course of five years. The cages were compared based on three productivity indices expressed in kg of produced live weight/m2 and on eight cost indices expressed in EUR/kg of produced live weight. The results showed that WRSA significantly reduced the productivity index per walkable cage area in buildings and cages, thanks to the longer platform area included in the cage compared to the other systems. Concerning cost indexes, total variable costs were not different among housing systems, whereas significant differences were observed within costs items. As for the feed costs, DP underperforms compared to BI or WRSA (1.15 vs. 1.02 and 0.99 EUR/kg produced live weight); for drugs costs, BI was less competitive compared to DP and WRSA (0.12 vs. 0.06 and 0.05 EUR /kg). In conclusion, under the conditions of the present study, the economic results of farms that adopted housing systems designed to improve rabbit welfare, such as WRSA enriched systems, were economically sustainable and, comparable to conventional housing systems based on BI or DP cages, also provided a significant reduction in drug use in the tested farms. A comprehensive collection of data from more farms at a European level would be necessary to confirm these results on the economics of farms adopting alternative housing systems for rabbits.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sherilyn Chang ◽  
Anitha Jeyagurunathan ◽  
Jue Hua Lau ◽  
Saleha Shafie ◽  
Ellaisha Samari ◽  

Background: Problematic drug use is common among psychiatric patients and is linked with poorer course and outcomes of illness. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of problematic drug use, and to explore its sociodemographic correlates and associations with health behaviors and outcomes among outpatients with schizophrenia and related psychoses in Singapore.Methods: Data from 397 individuals who were aged 21–65 years and were seeking treatment for schizophrenia and related psychoses in the outpatient clinics of a tertiary psychiatric hospital were analyzed. The Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) was used to assess problematic drug use. Information on sociodemographics, smoking status, alcohol use, symptoms severity and quality of life were collected. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to explore correlates and associations of problematic drug use.Results: The prevalence of problematic drug use was 5.8% (n = 23) in the sample, and 10.6% (n = 42) of the participants reported having problematic drug use and/or problematic alcohol use. More males than females reported having problematic drug use (p = 0.021), and also problematic drug and/or alcohol use (p = 0.004). Significant associations were observed between problematic drug use and smokers with nicotine dependence, and with physical health domain of quality of life. Individuals with greater symptom severity were approximately twice as likely to have problematic drug use and/or alcohol use.Conclusion: While the prevalence of problematic drug use in this sample population is relatively lower compared to other countries, there is a considerable number who might be at risk. Routine screening and close monitoring of drug use is recommended as part of psychiatric assessment, particularly among males and patients with nicotine dependence.

2021 ◽  
Michel Engeln ◽  
Megan E Fox ◽  
Ramesh Chandra ◽  
Eric Y Choi ◽  
Hyungwoo Nam ◽  

Psychostimulant exposure alters the activity of ventral pallidum (VP) projection-neurons. However, the molecular underpinnings of these circuit dysfunctions are unclear. Using RNA-sequencing followed by circuit-specific gene expression assays, we revealed a key role for the VP to mediodorsal thalamus (VP-MDT) projection neurons in cocaine-related behaviors in mice. Our analyses demonstrated that the transcription factor Nr4a1 bidirectionally modulated dendritic spine dynamics in VP-MDT neurons and positively regulated pathological drug use.

2021 ◽  
Vol 60 (4) ◽  
pp. 244-252
Anita Lukács ◽  
Andrea Szabó ◽  
Edina Horváth ◽  
Zsuzsanna Máté ◽  
Csaba Erdős ◽  

Abstract Introduction Among young adults, high rates of binge drinking were observed in certain European countries. Binge drinking is associated with several health problems (unplanned pregnancy, HIV infections, problems with memory, and injuries). The aim of this questionnaire-based study was to measure the frequency of binge drinking and its association with sociodemographic, familial, lifestyle factors and school performance among secondary and university students (n=2449) in Csongrád County, Hungary. Methods In this cross-sectional study the students’ sociodemographic data, parents’ educational and economic level, and students’ academic performance and self-reported use of tobacco, drugs, and alcohol were collected by a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were applied using SPSS 24.0 software. Results Altogether 2449 Hungarian secondary school students and university students participated in the study. Nearly one-third of the students were classified as binge drinkers, significantly more male university students. Tobacco or illicit drug use resulted in higher odds of being a binge drinker in both subgroups. Poor school performance and binge drinking were significantly correlated especially among secondary school students. Conclusions Targeting alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use together, including education, parent interventions, and public health policies, are crucial in the prevention of possible serious consequences.

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