Candidate Genes
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2021 ◽  
Vol 41 (12) ◽  
Wei Wei ◽  
Pengfei Wang ◽  
Shuangdong Li ◽  
Guangyu Fan ◽  
Fang Zhao ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Erik R. Funk ◽  
Nicholas A. Mason ◽  
Snæbjörn Pálsson ◽  
Tomáš Albrecht ◽  
Jeff A. Johnson ◽  

AbstractThe genetic architecture of a phenotype can have considerable effects on the evolution of a trait or species. Characterizing genetic architecture provides insight into the complexity of a given phenotype and, potentially, the role of the phenotype in evolutionary processes like speciation. We use genome sequences to investigate the genetic basis of phenotypic variation in redpoll finches (Acanthis spp.). We demonstrate that variation in redpoll phenotype is broadly controlled by a ~55-Mb chromosomal inversion. Within this inversion, we find multiple candidate genes related to melanogenesis, carotenoid coloration, and bill shape, suggesting the inversion acts as a supergene controlling multiple linked traits. A latitudinal gradient in ecotype distribution suggests supergene driven variation in color and bill morphology are likely under environmental selection, maintaining supergene haplotypes as a balanced polymorphism. Our results provide a mechanism for the maintenance of ecotype variation in redpolls despite a genome largely homogenized by gene flow.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Irfat Jan ◽  
Gautam Saripalli ◽  
Kuldeep Kumar ◽  
Anuj Kumar ◽  
Rakhi Singh ◽  

AbstractIn bread wheat, meta-QTL analysis was conducted using 353 QTLs that were available from earlier studies. When projected onto a dense consensus map comprising 76,753 markers, only 184 QTLs with the required information, could be utilized leading to identification of 61 MQTLs spread over 18 of the 21 chromosomes (barring 5D, 6D and 7D). The range for mean R2 (PVE %) was 1.9% to 48.1%, and that of CI was 0.02 to 11.47 cM; these CIs also carried 37 Yr genes. Using these MQTLs, 385 candidate genes (CGs) were also identified. Out of these CGs, 241 encoded known R proteins and 120 showed differential expression due to stripe rust infection at the seedling stage; the remaining 24 CGs were common in the sense that they encoded R proteins as well as showed differential expression. The proteins encoded by CGs carried the following widely known domains: NBS-LRR domain, WRKY domains, ankyrin repeat domains, sugar transport domains, etc. Thirteen breeders’ MQTLs (PVE > 20%) including four pairs of closely linked MQTLs are recommended for use in wheat molecular breeding, for future studies to understand the molecular mechanism of stripe rust resistance and for gene cloning.

2021 ◽  
Lotte Slenders ◽  
Lennart P.L. Landsmeer ◽  
Kai Cui ◽  
Marie A.C. Depuydt ◽  
Maarten Verwer ◽  

Background: Genome-wide association studies have discovered hundreds of common genetic variants for atherosclerotic disease and cardiovascular risk factors. The translation of susceptibility loci into biological mechanisms and targets for drug discovery remains challenging. Intersecting genetic and gene expression data has led to the identification of candidate genes. However, previously studied tissues are often non-diseased and heterogeneous in cell composition, hindering accurate candidate prioritization. Therefore, we analyzed single-cell transcriptomics from atherosclerotic plaques for cell-type-specific expression to identify atherosclerosis-associated candidate gene-cell pairs. Methods and Results: To identify disease-associated genes, we applied gene-based analyses using GWAS summary statistics from 46 atherosclerotic and cardiovascular disease, risk factors, and other traits. We then intersected these candidates with scRNA-seq data to identify genes specific for individual cell (sub)populations in atherosclerotic plaques. The coronary artery disease loci demonstrated a prominent signal in plaque smooth muscle cells (SKI, KANK2, SORT1) p-adj. = 0.0012, and endothelial cells (SLC44A1, ATP2B1) p-adj. = 0.0011. Further sub clustering revealed genes in risk loci for coronary calcification specifically enriched in a synthetic smooth muscle cell population. Finally, we used liver-derived scRNA-seq data and showed hepatocyte-specific enrichment of genes involved in serum lipid levels. Conclusion: We discovered novel gene-cell pairs, on top of known pairs, pointing to new biological mechanisms of atherosclerotic disease. We highlight that loci associated with coronary artery disease reveal prominent association levels in mainly plaque smooth muscle and endothelial cell populations. We present an intuitive single-cell transcriptomics-driven workflow rooted in human large-scale genetic studies to identify putative candidate genes and affected cells associated with cardiovascular traits. Collectively, our workflow allows for the identification of cell-specific targets relevant for atherosclerosis and can be universally applied to other complex genetic diseases and traits.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Victoria Furió ◽  
Miguel Moreno-Molina ◽  
Álvaro Chiner-Oms ◽  
Luis M. Villamayor ◽  
Manuela Torres-Puente ◽  

AbstractEfforts to eradicate tuberculosis are hampered by the rise and spread of antibiotic resistance. Several large-scale projects have aimed to specifically link clinical mutations to resistance phenotypes, but they were limited in both their explanatory and predictive powers. Here, we combine functional genomics and phylogenetic associations using clinical strain genomes to decipher the architecture of isoniazid resistance and search for new resistance determinants. This approach has allowed us to confirm the main target route of the antibiotic, determine the clinical relevance of redox metabolism as an isoniazid resistance mechanism and identify novel candidate genes harboring resistance mutations in strains with previously unexplained isoniazid resistance. This approach can be useful for characterizing how the tuberculosis bacilli acquire resistance to new antibiotics and how to forestall them.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Karolina Strzelec ◽  
Agata Dziedzic ◽  
Katarzyna Łazarz-Bartyzel ◽  
Aleksander M. Grabiec ◽  
Ewa Gutmajster ◽  

Abstract Background Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare condition characterized by slowly progressive overgrowth of the gingiva. The severity of overgrowth may differ from mild causing phonetic and masticatory issues, to severe resulting in diastemas or malposition of teeth. Both, autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive forms of HGF are described. The aim of this review is a clinical overview, as well as a summary and discussion of the involvement of candidate chromosomal regions, pathogenic variants of genes, and candidate genes in the pathogenesis of HGF. The loci related to non-syndromic HGF have been identified on chromosome 2 (GINGF, GINGF3), chromosome 5 (GINGF2), chromosome 11 (GINGF4), and 4 (GINGF5). Of these loci, pathogenic variants of the SOS-1 and REST genes inducing HGF have been identified in the GINGF and the GINGF5, respectively. Furthermore, among the top 10 clusters of genes ranked by enrichment score, ATP binding, and fibronectin encoding genes were proposed as related to HGF. Conclusion The analysis of clinical reports as well as translational genetic studies published since the late’90s indicate the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of non-syndromic HGF and point out the importance of genetic studies and bioinformatics of more numerous unrelated families to identify novel pathogenic variants potentially inducing HGF. This strategy will help to unravel the molecular  mechanisms as well as uncover specific targets for novel and less invasive therapies of this rare, orphan condition.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1858
Qingzhu Hua ◽  
Canbin Chen ◽  
Fangfang Xie ◽  
Zhike Zhang ◽  
Rong Zhang ◽  

Betalains are water-soluble nitrogen-containing pigments with multiple bioactivities. Pitayas are the only at large-scale commercially grown fruit containing abundant betalains for consumers. Currently, the key genes involved in betalain biosynthesis remain to be fully elucidated. Moreover, genome-wide analyses of these genes in betalain biosynthesis are not available in betalain-producing plant species. In this study, totally 53 genes related to betalain biosynthesis were identified from the genome data of Hylocereus undatus. Four candidate genes i.e., one cytochrome P-450 R gene (HmoCYP76AD1), two L-DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase genes (HmoDODAα1 and HmoDODAα2), and one cyclo-DOPA 5-O glucosyltransferase gene (HmocDOPA5GT) were initially screened according to bioinformatics and qRT-PCR analyses. Silencing HmoCYP76AD1, HmoDODAα1, HmoDODAα2 or HmocDOPA5GT resulted in loss of red pigment. HmoDODAα1 displayed a high level of L-DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase activity to produce betalamic acid and formed yellow betaxanthin. Co-expression of HmoCYP76AD1, HmoDODAα1 and HmocDOPA5GT in Nicotiana benthamiana and yeast resulted in high abundance of betalain pigments with a red color. These results suggested that HmoCYP76AD1, HmoDODAα1, and HmocDOPA5GT play key roles in betalain biosynthesis in Hylocereus. The results of the present study provide novel genes for molecular breeding programs of pitaya.

Quanchao Wang ◽  
Ying Liu ◽  
Yanxia Wang ◽  
Shaoyu Jiang ◽  
Chuanxin Zhang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Willian Giordani ◽  
Henrique Castro Gama ◽  
Alisson Fernando Chiorato ◽  
João Paulo Rodrigues Marques ◽  
Heqiang Huo ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Natalia Gutierrez ◽  
Ana M. Torres

Abstract Background Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta fabae Speg. and broomrape (Orobanche crenata) are among the economically most significant pathogens of faba bean. Several QTLs conferring resistance against the two pathogens have been identified and validated in different genetic backgrounds. The aim of this study was to saturate the most stable QTLs for ascochyta and broomrape resistance in two Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) populations, 29H x Vf136 and Vf6 x Vf136, to identify candidate genes conferring resistance against these two pathogens. Results We exploited the synteny between faba bean and the model species Medicago truncatula by selecting a set of 219 genes encoding putative WRKY transcription factors and defense related proteins falling within the target QTL intervals, for genotyping and marker saturation in the two RIL populations. Seventy and 50 of the candidate genes could be mapped in 29H x Vf136 and Vf6 x Vf136, respectively. Besides the strong reduction of the QTL intervals, the mapping process allowed replacing previous dominant and pedigree-specific RAPD flanking markers with robust and transferrable SNP markers, revealing promising candidates for resistance against the two pathogens. Conclusions Although further efforts in association mapping and expression studies will be required to corroborate the candidate genes for resistance, the fine-mapping approach proposed here increases the genetic resolution of relevant QTL regions and paves the way for an efficient deployment of useful alleles for faba bean ascochyta and broomrape resistance through marker-assisted breeding.

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