genome wide association studies
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Changqing Mu ◽  
Yating Zhao ◽  
Chen Han ◽  
Dandan Tian ◽  
Na Guo ◽  

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative disease with increasing incidence and high mortality, resulting in a considerable socio-economic burden. Till now, plenty of studies have explored the potential relationship between circulating levels of various micronutrients and ALS risk. However, the observations remain equivocal and controversial. Thus, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study to investigate the causality between circulating concentrations of 9 micronutrients, including retinol, folate acid, vitamin B12, B6 and C, calcium, copper, zinc as well as magnesium, and ALS susceptibility. In our analysis, several single nucleotide polymorphisms were collected as instrumental variables from large-scale genome-wide association studies of these 9 micronutrients. Then, inverse variance weighted (IVW) approach as well as alternative MR-Egger regression, weighted median and MR-pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) analyses were performed to evaluate causal estimates. The results from IVW analysis showed that there was no causal relationship of 9 micronutrients with ALS risk. Meanwhile, the three complementary approaches obtained similar results. Thus, our findings indicated that supplementation of these 9 micronutrients may not play a clinically effective role in preventing the occurrence of ALS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yan Zhou ◽  
Yingyi Zhang ◽  
Rui Zhao ◽  
Zhounan Cheng ◽  
Minzhu Tang ◽  

ObjectiveTo evaluate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RNA-seq identified mRNAs and silicosis susceptibility.MethodsA comprehensive RNA-seq was performed to screen for differently expressed mRNAs in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of eight subjects exposed to silica dust (four silicosis cases and four healthy controls). Following this, the SNPs located on the shortlisted mRNAs, which may affect silicosis susceptibility, were screened through silicosis-related genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (155 silicosis cases and 141 healthy controls), whereas functional expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL)-SNPs were identified using the GTEx database. Finally, the association between functional eQTL-SNPs and silicosis susceptibility (194 silicosis cases and 235 healthy controls) was validated.ResultsA total of 70 differentially expressed mRNAs (fold change > 2 or fold change < 0.5, P < 0.05) was obtained using RNA-seq. Furthermore, 476 SNPs located on the shortlisted mRNAs, which may affect silicosis susceptibility (P < 0.05) were obtained using GWAS, whereas subsequent six functional eQTL-SNPs were identified. The mutant A allele of rs9273410 in HLA-DQB1 indicated a potential increase in silicosis susceptibility in the validation stage (additive model: odds ratio (OR)= 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.99–1.74, P = 0.061), whereas the combination of GWAS and the validation results indicated that the mutant A allele of rs9273410 was associated with increased silicosis susceptibility (additive model: OR = 1.35, 95% CI =1.09–1.68, P = 0.006).ConclusionThe mutant A allele of rs9273410 was associated with increased silicosis susceptibility by modulating the expression of HLA-DQB1.

2022 ◽  
Mark J Gibson ◽  
Deborah A Lawlor ◽  
Louise AC Millard

Objectives: To identify the breadth of potential causal effects of insomnia on health outcomes and hence its possible role in multimorbidity. Design: Mendelian randomisation (MR) Phenome-wide association study (MR-PheWAS) with two-sample Mendelian randomisation follow-up. Setting: Individual data from UK Biobank and summary data from a number of genome-wide association studies. Participants: 336,975 unrelated white-British UK Biobank participants. Exposures: Standardised genetic risk of insomnia for the MR-PheWAS and genetically predicted insomnia for the two-sample MR follow-up, with insomnia instrumented by a genetic risk score (GRS) created from 129 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Main outcomes measures: 11,409 outcomes from UK Biobank extracted and processed by an automated pipeline (PHESANT). Potential causal effects (i.e., those passing a Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold) were followed up with two-sample MR in MR-Base, where possible. Results: 437 potential causal effects of insomnia were observed for a number of traits, including anxiety, stress, depression, mania, addiction, pain, body composition, immune, respiratory, endocrine, dental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and reproductive traits, as well as socioeconomic and behavioural traits. We were able to undertake two-sample MR for 71 of these 437 and found evidence of causal effects (with directionally concordant effect estimates across all analyses) for 25 of these. These included, for example, risk of anxiety disorders (OR=1.55 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30, 1.86] per category increase in insomnia), diseases of the oesophagus/stomach/duodenum (OR=1.32 [95% CI: 1.14, 1.53]) and spondylosis (OR=1.57 [95% CI: 1.22, 2.01]). Conclusion: Insomnia potentially causes a wide range of adverse health outcomes and behaviours. This has implications for developing interventions to prevent and treat a number of diseases in order to reduce multimorbidity and associated polypharmacy.

2022 ◽  
Ying Ma ◽  
Snehal Patil ◽  
Xiang Zhou ◽  
Bhramar Mukherjee ◽  
Lars G. Fritsche

Complex traits are influenced by genetic risk factors, lifestyle, and environmental variables, so called exposures. Some exposures, e.g., smoking or lipid levels, have common genetic modifiers identified in genome-wide association studies. Since measurements are often unfeasible, Exposure Polygenic Risk Scores (ExPRSs) offer an alternative to study the influence of exposures on various phenotypes. Here, we collected publicly available summary statistics for 28 exposures and applied four common PRS methods to generate ExPRSs in two large biobanks, the Michigan Genomics Initiative and the UK Biobank. We established ExPRS for 27 exposures and demonstrated their applicability in phenome-wide association studies and as predictors for common chronic conditions. Especially, the addition of multiple ExPRSs showed, for several chronic conditions, an improvement compared prediction models that only included traditional, disease-focused PRSs. To facilitate follow-up studies, we share all ExPRS constructs and generated results via an online repository called ExPRSweb.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Yanyu Liang ◽  
Milton Pividori ◽  
Ani Manichaikul ◽  
Abraham A. Palmer ◽  
Nancy J. Cox ◽  

Abstract Background Polygenic risk scores (PRS) are valuable to translate the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) into clinical practice. To date, most GWAS have been based on individuals of European-ancestry leading to poor performance in populations of non-European ancestry. Results We introduce the polygenic transcriptome risk score (PTRS), which is based on predicted transcript levels (rather than SNPs), and explore the portability of PTRS across populations using UK Biobank data. Conclusions We show that PTRS has a significantly higher portability (Wilcoxon p=0.013) in the African-descent samples where the loss of performance is most acute with better performance than PRS when used in combination.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Senlin Hu ◽  
Dong Hu ◽  
Haoran Wei ◽  
Shi-yang Li ◽  
Dong Wang ◽  

Background: Genetic variants in Scavenger receptor Class B Type 1 (SCARB1) influencing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk were identified by recent genome-wide association studies. Further study of potential functional variants in SCARB1 may provide new ideas of the complicated relationship between HDL-C and CHD.Methods: 2000 bp in SCARB1 promoter region was re-sequenced in 168 participants with extremely high plasma HDL-C and 400 control subjects. Putative risk alleles were identified using bioinformatics analysis and reporter-gene assays. Two indel variants, rs144334493 and rs557348251, respectively, were genotyped in 5,002 CHD patients and 5,175 control subjects. The underlying mechanisms were investigated.Results: Through resequencing, 27 genetic variants were identified. Results of genotyping in 5,002 CHD patients and 5,175 control subjects revealed that rs144334493 and rs557348251 were significantly associated with increased risk of CHD [odds ratio (OR): 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09 to 1.52, p = 0.003; OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.66–4.24, p = 4.4 × 10−5). Subsequent mechanism experiments demonstrated that rs144334493 deletion allele attenuated forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) binding to the promoter region of SCARB1, while FOXA1 overexpression reversely increased SR-BI expression.Conclusion: Genetic variants in SCARB1 promoter region significantly associated with the plasma lipid levels by affecting SR-BI expression and contribute to the susceptibility of CHD.

2022 ◽  
Jan Engelmann ◽  
Lea Zillich ◽  
Josef Frank ◽  
Stefanie Wagner ◽  
Metin Cetin ◽  

Abstract Although the currently available antidepressants are well established in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), there is strong variability in the response of individual patients. Reliable predictors to guide treatment decisions before or in an early stage of treatment are needed. DNA-methylation has been proven a useful biomarker in different clinical conditions, but its importance for mechanisms of antidepressant response has not yet been determined. 80 MDD patients were selected out of >500 participants from the Early Medication Change (EMC) cohort with available genetic material based on their antidepressant response after four weeks and stratified into clear responders and age- and sex-matched non-responders (N=40, each). Early improvement after two weeks was analyzed as a secondary outcome. DNA-methylation was determined using the Illumina EPIC BeadChip. Epigenome-wide association studies were performed and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) identified using the comb-p algorithm. Enrichment was tested for hallmark gene-sets and in genome-wide association studies of depression and antidepressant response. No epigenome-wide significant differentially methylated positions were found for treatment response or early improvement. Twenty DMRs were associated with response; the strongest in an enhancer region in SORBS2, which has been related to cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes. Another DMR was located in CYP2C18, a gene previously linked to antidepressant response. Results pointed towards differential methylation in genes associated with cardiac function, neuroticism, and depression. Linking differential methylation to antidepressant treatment response is an emerging topic and represents a step towards personalized medicine, potentially facilitating the prediction of patients’ response before treatment.

2022 ◽  
Tianyuan Lu ◽  
Vincenzo Forgetta ◽  
J. Brent Richards ◽  
Celia Greenwood

Abstract Genomic risk prediction is on the emerging path towards personalized medicine. However, the accuracy of polygenic prediction varies strongly in different individuals. In this study, based on up to 352,277 White British participants in the UK Biobank, we constructed polygenic risk scores for 15 physiological and biochemical quantitative traits after performing genome-wide association studies (GWASs). We identified 185 polygenic prediction variability quantitative trait loci (pvQTLs) for 11 traits by Levene’s test among 254,376 unrelated individuals. We validated the effects of pvQTLs using an independent test set of 58,927 individuals. A score aggregating 51 pvQTL SNPs for triglycerides had the strongest Spearman correlation of 0.185 (p-value < 1.0x10−300) with the squared prediction errors. We found a strong enrichment of complex genetic effects conferred by pvQTLs compared to risk loci identified in GWASs, including 89 pvQTLs exhibiting dominance effects. Incorporation of dominance effects into polygenic risk scores significantly improved polygenic prediction for triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, vitamin D, and platelet. After including 87 dominance effects for triglycerides, the adjusted R2 for the polygenic risk score had an 8.1% increase on the test set. In addition, 108 pvQTLs had significant interaction effects with measured environmental or lifestyle exposures. In conclusion, we have discovered and validated genetic determinants of polygenic prediction variability for 11 quantitative biomarkers, and partially profiled the underlying complex genetic effects. These findings may assist interpretation of genomic risk prediction in various contexts, and encourage novel approaches for constructing polygenic risk scores with complex genetic effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1009628
Zhi Ming Xu ◽  
Sina Rüeger ◽  
Michaela Zwyer ◽  
Daniela Brites ◽  
Hellen Hiza ◽  

Genome-wide association studies rely on the statistical inference of untyped variants, called imputation, to increase the coverage of genotyping arrays. However, the results are often suboptimal in populations underrepresented in existing reference panels and array designs, since the selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may fail to capture population-specific haplotype structures, hence the full extent of common genetic variation. Here, we propose to sequence the full genomes of a small subset of an underrepresented study cohort to inform the selection of population-specific add-on tag SNPs and to generate an internal population-specific imputation reference panel, such that the remaining array-genotyped cohort could be more accurately imputed. Using a Tanzania-based cohort as a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate the validity of our approach by showing improvements in imputation accuracy after the addition of our designed add-on tags to the base H3Africa array.

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