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2022 ◽  
Emma Herms ◽  
Amanda Bolbecker ◽  
Krista Wisner

Empathic tendencies (i.e., perspective taking and empathic concern) and emotion regulation (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) are key factors in successful social relationships. Relationships can also be negatively impacted by mental health symptoms, including psychosis. While psychotic-like experiences are often detrimental to social functioning, it is unclear whether certain psychotic-like experiences, such as delusions, are negatively associated with empathetic tendencies after accounting for emotion regulation skills and comorbid dimensions of psychopathology. Linear models were employed to test these associations in an adult community sample (N = 128). Measures of interest included the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and the Peter’s Delusion Inventory. Results indicated that perspective taking was positively associated with reappraisal and negatively associated with delusional proneness, after controlling for age, sex, race, intelligence, as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression. Furthermore, a significant change in R2 supported the addition of delusion proneness in this model. Specificity analyses demonstrated perspective taking was also negatively associated with suppression, but this relationship did not remain after accounting for the effects of reappraisal and delusion proneness in the same model. Additional specificity analyses found no association between empathic concern and reappraisal or delusion proneness but replicated previous findings that empathic concern was negatively associated with suppression. Taken together, findings highlight that delusion proneness accounts for unique variance in interpersonal perspective taking, beyond that explained by demographics, intelligence, reappraisal skills, and internalizing psychopathology.

Nora Trompeter ◽  
Kay Bussey ◽  
Miriam K. Forbes ◽  
Phillipa Hay ◽  
Mandy Goldstein ◽  

AbstractEmotion dysregulation has been posited as a key transdiagnostic factor of mental health difficulties, including eating disorders. However, how this transdiagnostic factor interacts with the disorder-specific factor of weight and shape concerns remains unclear. The current study examined whether emotion dysregulation is associated with eating disorder behaviors over and above the association between weight and shape concerns and whether these two factors interacted. The current study used data from two samples, a community sample of high school students (n = 2699), and a clinical sample of adolescents receiving outpatient treatment for an eating disorder (n = 149). Participants completed self-report measures on their eating behaviors, weight/shape concerns, and emotion dysregulation. Findings showed that emotion dysregulation had a unique association with engaging in binge eating and purging (community sample only). Weight and shape concerns were found to have a unique association with engaging in binge eating, fasting, purging, and driven exercise (community sample only). Additionally, weight and shape concerns moderated the association between emotion dysregulation and the probability of engaging in binge eating and driven exercise, whereby the strongest association between emotion dysregulation and these behaviors were observed among adolescents with the lowest levels of weight and shape concerns. Regarding the frequency of eating disorder behaviors, emotion dysregulation had a unique association with severity of binge eating and fasting. Weight and shape concerns were uniquely associated with severity of fasting and driven exercise (community sample only). Findings suggest that emotion dysregulation is a distinct factor of eating disorder behaviors among adolescents.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Andreas Hinz ◽  
Michael Friedrich ◽  
Tobias Luck ◽  
Steffi G. Riedel-Heller ◽  
Anja Mehnert-Theuerkauf ◽  

Background: Multiple studies have shown that people who have experienced a serious health problem such as an injury tend to overrate the quality of health they had before that event. The main objective of this study was to test whether the phenomenon of respondents overrating their past health can also be observed in people from the general population. A second aim was to test whether habitual optimism is indeed focused on events in the future.Method: A representatively selected community sample from Leipzig, Germany (n = 2282, age range: 40–75 years) was examined. Respondents were asked to assess their current health, their past health (5 years before), and their expected future health (in 5 years) on a 0–100 scale. In addition, the study participants completed several questionnaires on specific aspects of physical and mental health.Results: Respondents of all age groups assessed their health as having been better in the past than it was at present. Moreover, they also assessed their earlier state of health more positively than people 5 years younger did their current state. Habitual optimism was associated with respondents having more positive expectations of how healthy they will be in 5 years time (r = 0.37), but the correlation with their assessments of their current health was nearly as high (r = 0.36).Conclusion: Highly positive scores of retrospectively assessed health among people who have experienced a health problem cannot totally be accounted for by a response to that health problem.

2022 ◽  
Megan F. Pilon ◽  
David John Hallford ◽  
Sarah Hardgrove ◽  
Meghnam Sanam ◽  
Stefan Santos De Oliveira ◽  

Reminiscence-based interventions involve the guided recall and interpretation of autobiographical memories to promote adaptive thinking. This study involved secondary analyses of a recent trial of a positively focused, three-session version of cognitive-reminiscence therapy (CRT) on generalised perceptions of relationship quality and interpersonally related psychological resources in young adults. A community sample (N = 62, Mage = 24.6 [SD = 3.1], 71% females) of young adults were randomised into a CRT and wait-list condition. Participants completed assessments measuring perceived relationship quality (relationship satisfaction, emotional intimacy, commitment, and trust) and perceptions of self and others within relationships (relationship self-esteem, relationship self-efficacy, relationship optimism and meaning in relationships). The CRT group, relative to the control group, scored significantly higher on perceived relationship quality (d = 0.62), and higher on generalized relationship self-efficacy (d = 0.70), relationship self-esteem (d = 0.59), and relationship optimism (d = 0.57) at the follow-up. Group differences for relationship meaning were non-trivial (small to moderate), but not statistically significant. A brief, positive-focused, intervention of guided recall of autobiographical memories was generally effective in improving perceptions about self and others within the context of relationships in young adults. Replication studies with larger samples are needed. Future research may expand CRT to target other relationship variables, assess the impacts of different doses, explore relationships in specific populations, and better understand the mechanisms for change.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Jeevan Fernando ◽  
Jan Stochl ◽  
Karen D. Ersche

Drugs of abuse are widely known to worsen mental health problems, but this relationship may not be a simple causational one. Whether or not a person is susceptible to the negative effects of drugs of abuse may not only be determined by their addictive properties, but also the users’ chronotype, which determines their daily activity patterns. The present study investigates the relationship between chronotype, drug use and mental health problems in a cross-sectional community sample. Participants (n = 209) completed a selection of questionnaires online, including the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, the Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. We conducted multiple regression models to determine relationships between participants’ chronotype and their reported mental health symptoms and then estimated mediation models to investigate the extent to which their drug consumption accounted for the identified associations. Chronotype was significantly associated with participants’ overall mental health (β = 0.16, p = 0.022) and their anxiety levels (β = 0.18, p = 0.009) but not with levels of depression or stress. However, both relationships were fully mediated by participants’ overall drug consumption. Thus, late chronotypes, so-called “night owls”, not only use more drugs but consequently have an increased risk for developing anxiety and deteriorating mental health status. This group may be particularly vulnerable to the negative psychological effects of drugs. Our results point toward the importance of considering chronotype in designing preventative and therapeutic innovations, specifically for anxiety, which at present has been largely neglected.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ryan Smith ◽  
Samuel Taylor ◽  
Robert C. Wilson ◽  
Anne E. Chuning ◽  
Michelle R. Persich ◽  

Anxiety and depression are often associated with strong beliefs that entering specific situations will lead to aversive outcomes – even when these situations are objectively safe and avoiding them reduces well-being. A possible mechanism underlying this maladaptive avoidance behavior is a failure to reflect on: (1) appropriate levels of uncertainty about the situation, and (2) how this uncertainty could be reduced by seeking further information (i.e., exploration). To test this hypothesis, we asked a community sample of 416 individuals to complete measures of reflective cognition, exploration, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Consistent with our hypotheses, we found significant associations between each of these measures in expected directions (i.e., positive relationships between reflective cognition and strategic information-seeking behavior or “directed exploration”, and negative relationships between these measures and anxiety/depression symptoms). Further analyses suggested that the relationship between directed exploration and depression/anxiety was due in part to an ambiguity aversion promoting exploration in conditions where information-seeking was not beneficial (as opposed to only being due to under-exploration when more information would aid future choices). In contrast, reflectiveness was associated with greater exploration in appropriate settings and separately accounted for differences in reaction times, decision noise, and choice accuracy in expected directions. These results shed light on the mechanisms underlying information-seeking behavior and how they may contribute to symptoms of emotional disorders. They also highlight the potential clinical relevance of individual differences in reflectiveness and exploration and should motivate future research on their possible contributions to vulnerability and/or maintenance of affective disorders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Po-Yi Yao ◽  
Chung-Ying Lin ◽  
Nai-Ying Ko ◽  
Huachun Zou ◽  
Chia-Wen Lee ◽  

Abstract Background To understand how human papillomavirus (HPV) screening results, HPV-related knowledge and attitudes are related to vaccination intention in three cost ranges and the actual vaccination behavior in a community sample of men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods MSM aged 20 years of age or older were recruited between October 2015 and May 2016 from community health centers that provide HIV testing and consultation services in Southern Taiwan and on social media. MSM were seen at baseline and again at 6 months after baseline in a cohort study. The baseline study included 253 individuals; 182 of them returned for the 6th-month follow-up. At each visit, MSM were asked to receive HPV screening and filled out a questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether attitudinal factors and HPV screening results from the baseline affect their self-reported actual vaccine uptake at the in 6th-month follow-up. Results Our research included 171 participants from the cohort because they had full information of the study variables (mean ± SD age = 29.21 ± 6.18). Our model showed good model fit using indices such as the comparative fit index (value = 0.998) and root mean square error of approximation (value = 0.013). HPV knowledge can predict those who have intention to take up HPV vaccine no matter what the price (p = .02), and then predict vaccine uptake at the follow-up (p < .001). A positive HPV screening result can predict vaccine uptake at the follow-up (p = .004). Conclusion Our findings highlight the impact of vaccine price and HPV screening results on the intention and uptake of HPV vaccine. It is important to raise awareness of HPV in male populations. Clinicians and health educators should establish a safe and private environment for male patients for inquiring about HPV vaccine and HPV-related cancers.

Assessment ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 107319112110681
Ionut Stelian Florean ◽  
Anca Dobrean ◽  
Robert Balazsi ◽  
Adrian Roșan ◽  
Costina Ruxandra Păsărelu ◽  

This study aimed to investigate the measurement invariance of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (for both long [APQ-lg] and short [APQ-9] forms) across age, gender, clinical status, and informant (i.e., parent vs. child reports). The sample was composed of adolescents (community sample: N = 1,746; clinical sample: N = 166) and parents ( N = 149). The analyses were conducted in R. Measurement invariance was assessed via multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, equivalence test, and subsampling approach. The original model of APQ-lg (five factors) showed a significantly better fit than other concurrent models (five concurrent models were specified, based on prior literature). For APQ-lg, we found measurement invariance across gender and partial measurement invariance across age, clinical status, and informant. For APQ-9, we confirmed the measurement invariance across gender and clinical status, while across age and informant partial measurement invariance was attested. Overall, our study indicated that APQ-lg and APQ-9 are two valid tools for measuring parenting practices with some caveats.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Karel D. Riegel ◽  
Judita Konecna ◽  
Martin Matoulek ◽  
Livia Rosova

Background: Personality pathology does not have to be a contraindication to a bariatric surgery if a proper pre-surgical assessment is done. Indicating subgroups of patients with their specific needs could help tailor interventions and improve surgical treatment outcomes.Objectives: Using the Alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorders (AMPD) and the ICD-11 model for PDs to detect subgroups of patients with obesity based on a specific constellation of maladaptive personality traits and the level of overall personality impairment.Methods: 272 consecutively consented patients who underwent a standard pre-surgical psychological assessment. The majority were women (58.0%), age range was 22–79 years (M = 48.06, SD = 10.70). Patients’ average body mass index (BMI) was 43.95 kg/m2. All participants were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) from which Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Self Report (LPFS-SR) and Standardized Assessment of Severity of Personality Disorder (SASPD) scores were gained using the “crosswalk” for common metric for self-reported severity of personality disorder. The k-means clustering method was used to define specific subgroups of patients with obesity and replicated for equality testing to the samples of non-clinical respondents and psychiatric patients.Results: The cluster analysis detected specific groups in the sample of patients with obesity, which differed quantitatively from the samples of non-clinical respondents and psychiatric patients. A vast majority of patients with obesity showed above-average values in most of the PID-5 facets compared to the United States representative general community sample. In two out of the three clusters defined, patients demonstrated moderate (&gt; M + 1.5 × SD) to severe (&gt; M + 2.0 × SD) personality psychopathology within the Detachment and Negative Affectivity domains according to PID-5, which in one of the clusters corresponded to the mild overall impairment in both, LPFS-SR (M = 2.18, SD = 0.27) and SASPD (M = 8.44, SD = 2.38). Moreover, higher levels of psychopathology prove to be associated with higher age and use of psychiatric medication.Conclusions: The dimensional DSM-5 and ICD-11 trait models are suitable procedures for defining specific “characters” of patients in a pre-bariatric setting. As such, they help to identify subgroups of patients with obesity who are different from general population and psychiatric patients. Implications for clinical practice and further research are discussed.

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