protein transport
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 955
Hana Ujcikova ◽  
Dagoberto Robles ◽  
Xu Yue ◽  
Petr Svoboda ◽  
Yeon Sun Lee ◽  

Chronic pain is associated with time-dependent structural and functional reorganization of the prefrontal cortex that may reflect adaptive pain compensatory and/or maladaptive pain-promoting mechanisms. However, the molecular underpinnings of these changes and whether there are time-dependent relationships to pain progression are not well characterized. In this study, we analyzed protein composition in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats at two timepoints after spinal nerve ligation (SNL) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-ELFO) and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). SNL, but not sham-operated, rats developed persistent tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, confirming the presence of experimental neuropathic pain. Two weeks after SNL (early timepoint), we identified 11 proteins involved in signal transduction, protein transport, cell homeostasis, metabolism, and apoptosis, as well as heat-shock proteins and chaperones that were upregulated by more than 1.5-fold compared to the sham-operated rats. Interestingly, there were only four significantly altered proteins identified at 8 weeks after SNL (late timepoint). These findings demonstrate extensive time-dependent modifications of protein expression in the rat mPFC under a chronic neuropathic pain state that might underlie the evolution of chronic pain characterized by early pain-compensatory and later aberrant mechanisms.

E. Fidalgo da Silva ◽  
J. Fong ◽  
A. Roye-Azar ◽  
A. Nadi ◽  
C. Drouillard ◽  

The ability of cells to sense diverse environmental signals, including nutrient availability and conditions of stress, is critical for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes to mount an appropriate physiological response. While there is a great deal known about the different biochemical pathways that can detect and relay information from the environment, how these signals are integrated to control progression through the cell cycle is still an expanding area of research. Over the past three decades the proteins Tuberin, Hamartin and TBC1D7 have emerged as a large protein complex called the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. This complex can integrate a wide variety of environmental signals to control a host of cell biology events including protein synthesis, cell cycle, protein transport, cell adhesion, autophagy, and cell growth. Worldwide efforts have revealed many molecular pathways which alter Tuberin post-translationally to convey messages to these important pathways, with most of the focus being on the regulation over protein synthesis. Herein we review the literature supporting that the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex plays a critical role in integrating environmental signals with the core cell cycle machinery.

Haematologica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Joanne Lacey ◽  
Simon J. Webster ◽  
Paul R. Heath ◽  
Chris J. Hill ◽  
Lucinda Nicholson-Goult ◽  

Germline defects affecting the DNA-binding domain of the transcription factor FLI1 are associated with a bleeding disorder that is characterised by the presence of large, fused α-granules in platelets. We investigated whether the genes showing abnormal expression in FLI1-deficient platelets could be involved in platelet α-granule biogenesis by undertaking transcriptome analysis of control platelets and platelets harbouring a DNA-binding variant of FLI1. Our analysis identified 2276 transcripts that were differentially expressed in FLI1- deficient platelets. Functional annotation clustering of the coding transcripts revealed significant enrichment for gene annotations relating to protein transport, and identified Sorting nexin 24 (SNX24) as a candidate for further investigation. Using an iPSC-derived megakaryocyte model, SNX24 expression was found to be increased during the early stages of megakaryocyte differentiation and downregulated during proplatelet formation, indicating tight regulatory control during megakaryopoiesis. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated knockout (KO) of SNX24 led to decreased expression of immature megakaryocyte markers, CD41 and CD61, and increased expression of the mature megakaryocyte marker CD42b (p=0.0001), without affecting megakaryocyte polyploidisation, or proplatelet formation. Electron microscopic analysis revealed an increase in empty membrane-bound organelles in SNX24 KO megakaryocytes, a reduction in α-granules and an absence of immature and mature multivesicular bodies, consistent with a defect in the intermediate stage of α-granule maturation. Co-localisation studies showed that SNX24 associates with each compartment of α-granule maturation. Reduced expression of CD62P and VWF was observed in SNX24 KO megakaryocytes. We conclude that SNX24 is required for α-granule biogenesis and intracellular trafficking of α-granule cargo within megakaryocytes.

Robert-William Welke ◽  
Hannah Sabeth Sperber ◽  
Amit Koikkarah ◽  
Laura Menke ◽  
Christian Sieben ◽  

Hantaviruses are enveloped viruses that possess a tri-segmented, negative-sense RNA genome. The viral S-segment encodes the multifunctional nucleocapsid protein (N), which is involved in genome packaging, intracellular protein transport, immunoregulation and several other crucial processes during hantavirus infection. In this study we have generated fluorescently tagged N protein constructs derived from Puumalavirus, the dominant hantavirus species in Central, Northern and Eastern Europe. We have comprehensively characterized this protein in the rodent cell line CHO-K1, monitoring the dynamics of N protein complex formation and investigating co-localization with host proteins as well as the viral glycoproteins Gc and Gn. We found a significant spatial correlation of N with vimentin, actin and P-bodies, but not with microtubules. N constructs also co-localized with Gn and Gc, albeit not as strong as the glycoproteins associated with each other. Moreover, we as-sessed oligomerization of N constructs, observing efficient and concentration-dependent multi-merization, with complexes comprising more than 10 individual proteins.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Nórida Vélez ◽  
Lucía Monteoliva ◽  
Zilpa-Adriana Sánchez-Quitian ◽  
Ahinara Amador-García ◽  
Rocío García-Rodas ◽  

In fungi, metals are associated with the expression of virulence factors. However, it is unclear whether the uptake of metals affects their pathogenicity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of iron/copper in modulating pathogenicity and proteomic response in two clinical isolates of C. neoformans with high and low pathogenicity. Methods: In both isolates, the effect of 50 µM iron and 500 µM copper on pathogenicity, capsule induction, and melanin production was evaluated. We then performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of cytoplasmic extracts exposed to that combination. Finally, the effect on pathogenicity by iron and copper was evaluated in eight additional isolates. Results: In both isolates, the combination of iron and copper increased pathogenicity, capsule size, and melanin production. Regarding proteomic data, proteins with increased levels after iron and copper exposure were related to biological processes such as cell stress, vesicular traffic (Ap1, Vps35), cell wall structure (Och1, Ccr4, Gsk3), melanin biosynthesis (Hem15, Mln2), DNA repair (Chk1), protein transport (Mms2), SUMOylation (Uba2), and mitochondrial transport (Atm1). Increased pathogenicity by exposure to metal combination was also confirmed in 90% of the eight isolates. Conclusions: The combination of these metals enhances pathogenicity and increases the abundance of proteins related to the main virulence factors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 1760-1763
Alanoud Bakheet Alzahrani

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the widespread type of DM which causes chronic as well as progressive alterations at microvascular level, which particularly effects the eye. The main characteristic of this disease is the development of few new blood vessels around the retina of eye as well as at the posterior region of eye segments. For our computational analysis 155 differentially expressed genes calculated through paired t test statistics analysis using the GenePattern platform, of proliferative diabetic retinopathy in Saudi patients were downloaded. Among the 155 genes, 95 were upregulated, and 60 were downregulated. The Annotation Cluster (FAC) tool in the (DAVID) ( was used to identify biological processes that are abundant in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The functions required for response to mRNA splicing, intracellular protein transport, mRNA processing, microtubule cytoskeleton structure, and atrioventricular canal formation are represented by the GO keywords that are abundant in genes. We used the KAAS web server to identify the biological pathways of these DEGs in addition to DAVID functional analysis and found that the majority of the DEGs were associated with important biological processes, with many being classified in metabolic pathways, Spliceosome, Cell cycle, or being involved in the mRNA surveillance pathway. findings are consistent with those of earlier research. To corroborate the predictions stated in this work, which will demonstrate the role enhanced functional processes, experimental validation will be necessary.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 143
Andrea Tirincsi ◽  
Mark Sicking ◽  
Drazena Hadzibeganovic ◽  
Sarah Haßdenteufel ◽  
Sven Lang

Looking at the variety of the thousands of different polypeptides that have been focused on in the research on the endoplasmic reticulum from the last five decades taught us one humble lesson: no one size fits all. Cells use an impressive array of components to enable the safe transport of protein cargo from the cytosolic ribosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum. Safety during the transit is warranted by the interplay of cytosolic chaperones, membrane receptors, and protein translocases that together form functional networks and serve as protein targeting and translocation routes. While two targeting routes to the endoplasmic reticulum, SRP (signal recognition particle) and GET (guided entry of tail-anchored proteins), prefer targeting determinants at the N- and C-terminus of the cargo polypeptide, respectively, the recently discovered SND (SRP-independent) route seems to preferentially cater for cargos with non-generic targeting signals that are less hydrophobic or more distant from the termini. With an emphasis on targeting routes and protein translocases, we will discuss those functional networks that drive efficient protein topogenesis and shed light on their redundant and dynamic nature in health and disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Katarzyna M. Grochowska ◽  
Julia Bär ◽  
Guilherme M. Gomes ◽  
Michael R. Kreutz ◽  
Anna Karpova

Pyramidal neurons exhibit a complex dendritic tree that is decorated by a huge number of spine synapses receiving excitatory input. Synaptic signals not only act locally but are also conveyed to the nucleus of the postsynaptic neuron to regulate gene expression. This raises the question of how the spatio-temporal integration of synaptic inputs is accomplished at the genomic level and which molecular mechanisms are involved. Protein transport from synapse to nucleus has been shown in several studies and has the potential to encode synaptic signals at the site of origin and decode them in the nucleus. In this review, we summarize the knowledge about the properties of the synapto-nuclear messenger protein Jacob with special emphasis on a putative role in hippocampal neuronal plasticity. We will elaborate on the interactome of Jacob, the signals that control synapto-nuclear trafficking, the mechanisms of transport, and the potential nuclear function. In addition, we will address the organization of the Jacob/NSMF gene, its origin and we will summarize the evidence for the existence of splice isoforms and their expression pattern.

Genetics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Melissa R Bentley-Ford ◽  
Melissa LaBonty ◽  
Holly R Thomas ◽  
Courtney J Haycraft ◽  
Mikyla Scott ◽  

Abstract Primary cilia are sensory and signaling hubs with a protein composition that is distinct from the rest of the cell due to the barrier function of the transition zone (TZ) at the base of the cilium. Protein transport across the TZ is mediated in part by the BBSome, and mutations disrupting TZ and BBSome proteins cause human ciliopathy syndromes. Ciliopathies have phenotypic variability even among patients with identical genetic variants, suggesting a role for modifier loci. To identify potential ciliopathy modifiers, we performed a mutagenesis screen on nphp-4 mutant Caenorhabditis elegans and uncovered a novel allele of bbs-5. Nphp-4;bbs-5 double mutant worms have phenotypes not observed in either individual mutant strain. To test whether this genetic interaction is conserved, we also analyzed zebrafish and mouse mutants. While Nphp4 mutant zebrafish appeared overtly normal, Bbs5 mutants exhibited scoliosis. When combined, Nphp4;Bbs5 double mutant zebrafish did not exhibit synergistic effects, but the lack of a phenotype in Nphp4 mutants makes interpreting these data difficult. In contrast, Nphp4;Bbs5 double mutant mice were not viable and there were fewer mice than expected carrying three mutant alleles. In addition, postnatal loss of Bbs5 in mice using a conditional allele compromised survival when combined with an Nphp4 allele. As cilia are still formed in the double mutant mice, the exacerbated phenotype is likely a consequence of disrupted ciliary signaling. Collectively, these data support an evolutionarily conserved genetic interaction between Bbs5 and Nphp4 alleles that may contribute to the variability in ciliopathy phenotypes.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2132
Wan-Shan Li ◽  
Chih-I Chen ◽  
Hsin-Pao Chen ◽  
Kuang-Wen Liu ◽  
Chia-Jen Tsai ◽  

Data mining of a public transcriptomic rectal cancer dataset (GSE35452) from the Gene Expression Omnibus, National Center for Biotechnology Information identified the melanophilin (MLPH) gene as the most significant intracellular protein transport-related gene (GO:0006886) associated with a poor response to preoperative chemoradiation. An MLPH immunostain was performed on biopsy specimens from 172 rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative chemoradiation; samples were divided into high- and low-expression groups by H-scores. Subsequently, the correlations between MLPH expression and clinicopathologic features, tumor regression grade, disease-specific survival (DSS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and metastasis-free survival (MeFS) were analyzed. MLPH expression was significantly associated with CEA level (p = 0.001), pre-treatment tumor status (p = 0.022), post-treatment tumor status (p < 0.001), post-treatment nodal status (p < 0.001), vascular invasion (p = 0.028), and tumor regression grade (p < 0.001). After uni- and multi-variable analysis of five-year survival, MLPH expression was still associated with lower DSS (hazard ratio (HR), 10.110; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.178–46.920; p = 0.003) and MeFS (HR, 5.621; 95% CI, 1.762–17.931; p = 0.004). In conclusion, identifying MLPH expression could help to predict the response to chemoradiation and survival, and aid in personal therapeutic modification.

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