Hash Functions
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2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Sandeep Kumar Reddy Thota ◽  
C. Mala ◽  
Geetha Krishnan

Purpose A wireless body area network (WBAN) is a collection of sensing devices attached to a person’s body that is typically used during health care to track their physical state. This paper aims to study the security challenges and various attacks that occurred while transferring a person’s sensitive medical diagnosis information in WBAN. Design/methodology/approach This technology has significantly gained prominence in the medical field. These wearable sensors are transferring information to doctors, and there are numerous possibilities for an intruder to pose as a doctor and obtain information about the patient’s vital information. As a result, mutual authentication and session key negotiations are critical security challenges for wearable sensing devices in WBAN. This work proposes an improved mutual authentication and key agreement protocol for wearable sensing devices in WBAN. The existing related schemes require more computational and storage requirements, but the proposed method provides a flexible solution with less complexity. Findings As sensor devices are resource-constrained, proposed approach only makes use of cryptographic hash-functions and bit-wise XOR operations, hence it is lightweight and flexible. The protocol’s security is validated using the AVISPA tool, and it will withstand various security attacks. The proposed protocol’s simulation and performance analysis are compared to current relevant schemes and show that it produces efficient outcomes. Originality/value This technology has significantly gained prominence in the medical sector. These sensing devises transmit information to doctors, and there are possibilities for an intruder to pose as a doctor and obtain information about the patient’s vital information. Hence, this paper proposes a lightweight and flexible protocol for mutual authentication and key agreement for wearable sensing devices in WBAN only makes use of cryptographic hash-functions and bit-wise XOR operations. The proposed protocol is simulated using AVISPA tool and its performance is better compared to the existing methods. This paper proposes a novel improved mutual authentication and key-agreement protocol for wearable sensing devices in WBAN.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1661-1678
Lijie Chen ◽  
Ce Jin ◽  
R. Ryan Williams ◽  
Hongxun Wu

Kinjal Raut

Abstract: The internet has revolutionized advancements, it’s conveniences and uses come at the price of new perils. To be safe from being the victim of fraud, theft and other damage security and vigilance is critical. Cryptography plays an important role in securing information and communications using a set of rules, it ensures the integrity of our data. It maintains confidentiality by protecting the privacy of personal information stored in enterprise systems. Hence Encryption is the only way to ensure that your information remains secure while it is stored and being transmitted. Cryptographic Algorithms mathematically maintain the integrity, confidentiality and authenticity of sensitive information by preventing data disclosure, data tampering and repudiation. The three main types of cryptography are Symmetric Key Cryptography, Asymmetric Key Cryptography and Hash Functions. In this Paper, several important algorithms used for encryption and decryption are defined and analysed, the algorithms are DES, AES, ECC, RSA, MD5 Keywords: Cryptography, Encryption, Decryption, AES, DES, ECC, RSA, Blowfish, MD5

Cryptographic hash functions are which transform any long message to fixed-length data. It seeks to ensure the confidentiality of the data through the cryptographic hash. The digital forensic tool is a method for extracting information from various storage devices, such as hard drives, memory. SHA-1 and SHA-2 methods are both widely used in forensic image archives. The hash method is usually used during evidence processing, the checking of forensic images (duplicate evidence), then at the completion of the analysis again to ensure data integrity and forensic evaluation of evidence. There was a vulnerability called a collision in the hashing algorithm in which two independent messages had the same hash values. While SHA-3 is secure than its former counterparts, the processors for general purposes are being slow and are not yet so popular. This task proposes a basic yet successful framework to meet the needs of cyber forensics, combining hash functions with other cryptographic concepts, for instance, SALT, such as modified secured hash algorithm (MSHA). A salt applies to the hashing mechanism to make it exclusive, expand its complexity and reduce user attacks like hash tables without increasing user requirements.

Nafisah Kheshaifaty ◽  
Adnan Gutub ◽  

Password alone is currently not trusted for user online authentication and security as threats from hackers continue to grow, requiring highly efficient defense safeguard protection against unauthorized users. Therefore, CAPTCHA techniques came into the picture as an automated assistance to distinguish between humans and robots. The CAPTCHA has several applications in the online security domain requiring to be merged with encrypted hash function benefitting from the facility of the graphical password schemes. This paper proposes engineering an authentication technique using graphical CAPTCHA with an AES encrypted hash password to maintain applicable security accessing systems. We propose three layered security system that joins highly efficient security mechanisms to avoid users’ stress of entering password many times or different other hectic routines in order to save account accessing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2078 (1) ◽  
pp. 012003
Shanque Dou ◽  
Ming Mao ◽  
Yanjun Li ◽  
Dongying Qiu

Abstract With the increasing application of quantum computing, quantum technology is increasingly used in the security analysis and research of multiple symmetric cryptographic algorithms such as block ciphers and hash functions. In 2020, Sasaki et al. proposed a dedicated quantum collision attack against hash functions in EUROCRYPT. Some differential trajectories with a probability of 2−2n/3 that cannot be used in the classical environment may be used to launch collision attacks in the quantum environment. The ARIA algorithm is a block cipher proposed by the Korean researcher Kwon et al. on ICISC 2003. The block cipher algorithm is similar to AES in structure. This article mainly analyzes the security of Davies-Meyer structure, and uses AIRA as the permutation function to construct ARIA hash function based on the DM hash model. A new AIRA differential path was found based on MILP, and 7 rounds of ARIA-DM hash function quantum rebound attacks were given.

О. Ussatova ◽  
Ye. Begimbayeva ◽  
S. Nyssanbayeva ◽  
N. Ussatov

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