scholarly journals A Comprehensive Review of Cryptographic Algorithms

Kinjal Raut

Abstract: The internet has revolutionized advancements, it’s conveniences and uses come at the price of new perils. To be safe from being the victim of fraud, theft and other damage security and vigilance is critical. Cryptography plays an important role in securing information and communications using a set of rules, it ensures the integrity of our data. It maintains confidentiality by protecting the privacy of personal information stored in enterprise systems. Hence Encryption is the only way to ensure that your information remains secure while it is stored and being transmitted. Cryptographic Algorithms mathematically maintain the integrity, confidentiality and authenticity of sensitive information by preventing data disclosure, data tampering and repudiation. The three main types of cryptography are Symmetric Key Cryptography, Asymmetric Key Cryptography and Hash Functions. In this Paper, several important algorithms used for encryption and decryption are defined and analysed, the algorithms are DES, AES, ECC, RSA, MD5 Keywords: Cryptography, Encryption, Decryption, AES, DES, ECC, RSA, Blowfish, MD5

2015 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 244
Balajee Maram ◽  
Y Ramesh Kumar ◽  
K Lakshmana Rao

<p>In this research paper, a novel and strong symmetric key cryptography algorithm is proposed. NARSKCA is based on several symmetric cryptographic algorithms. NARSKCA is very simple that uses character converting algorithm, Fibonacci Number Series, Lucas Number series and bitwise XOR. In NARSKCA, 32 files are shared-secret files plays a vital role in this Proposed Algorithm. The Sub-keys are generated from those 32 shared-secret files which are useful in different rounds of Encryption and Decryption Process. The most important feature is the calculation of the final key from the Sub-Keys for each Text-Block. Key Generation, encryption/decryption schemes of NARSKCA are fast and difficult to predict by Cryptanalysts.</p>

2020 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 395-398
Taleb Samad Obaid

To transmit sensitive information over the unsafe communication network like the internet network, the security is precarious tasks to protect this information. Always, we have much doubt that there are more chances to uncover the information that is being sent through network terminals or the internet by professional/amateur parasitical persons. To protect our information we may need a secure way to safeguard our transferred information. So, encryption/decryption, stenographic and vital cryptography may be adapted to care for the required important information. In system cryptography, the information transferred between both sides sender/receiver in the network must be scrambled using the encryption algorithm. The second side (receiver) should be outlook the original data using the decryption algorithms. Some encryption techniques applied the only one key in the cooperation of encryption and decryption algorithms. When the similar key used in both proceeds is called symmetric algorithm. Other techniques may use two different keys in encryption/decryption in transferring information which is known as the asymmetric key.  In general, the algorithms that implicated asymmetric keys are much more secure than others using one key.   RSA algorithm used asymmetric keys; one of them for encryption the message, and is known as a public key and another used to decrypt the encrypted message and is called a private key. The main disadvantage of the RSA algorithm is that extra time is taken to perform the encryption process. In this study, the MATLAB library functions are implemented to achieve the work. The software helps us to hold very big prime numbers to generate the required keys which enhanced the security of transmitted information and we expected to be difficult for a hacker to interfere with the private information. The algorithms are implemented successfully on different sizes of messages files.

Sabitha S ◽  
Binitha V Nair

Cryptography is an essential and effective method for securing information’s and data. Several symmetric and asymmetric key cryptographic algorithms are used for securing the data. Symmetric key cryptography uses the same key for both encryption and decryption. Asymmetric Key Cryptography also known as public key cryptography uses two different keys – a public key and a private key. The public key is used for encryption and the private key is used for decryption. In this paper, certain asymmetric key algorithms such as RSA, Rabin, Diffie-Hellman, ElGamal and Elliptical curve cryptosystem, their security aspects and the processes involved in design and implementation of these algorithms are examined.

2019 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 1458-1461 ◽  

Current essential factor in this world to send a sensitive information over the unsecured network like the internet is security. Protection of sensitive data is becoming a major raising problem due to rising technologies. A recent attack on Electronic Mail of CBI shows that attacker’s efficiency rate. Standard cryptographic algorithms can be exploited by the attackers frequently and unable to apply for standard devices because of their energy consumption due to high computation with slow processing. Lightweight cryptography based algorithms can reduce these problems. This paper deals with symmetric key cryptography technique to encrypt the data where the sender and receiver share a common key which can also be called a secret key cryptography. To encrypt and decrypt the data, randomly generated Pentatope Number has used as a key. Next level of security will be provided using EHA (Ethernet Hardware Address or MAC Address) which is globally unique, to provide secure data transmission. The increasing of attacks on related key attacks motivates this. In particular, we investigate the efficiency impact comparatively other standard algorithms and observed that applications do not always use cryptographic algorithms without their intended use.

2018 ◽  
Vol 44 (2) ◽  
pp. 35-40
Tanya jabor ◽  
Hiba Taresh ◽  
Alaa Raheema

All the important information is exchanged between facilities using the internet and networks, all these data should besecret and secured probably, the personal information of person in each of these institutions day by day need to organized secretlyand the need of the cryptography systems is raised which can easily encrypt the personal and critical data and it can be shared withother centers via internet without and concerns about privacy. Chaotic performance is added to different phases of AES but very few apply it on key generation and choosing ChebyshevPolynomial will provide a chaotic map which will led to random strong key. our system based on modified advanced encryptionstandard (AES) , with encryption and decryption in real time taking to consideration the criticality of data images that beenencrypted the main encryption algorithm is the same the modification is done by replacing the key generation algorithm byChebyshev Polynomial to generate key with the required key size.

2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 3420-3427
P. A. S. D. Perera, G. S . Wijesiri

The present-day society depends heavily on digital technology where it is used in many applications such as banking and e-commerce transactions, computer passwords, etc. Therefore, it is important to protect information when storing and sharing them. Cryptography is the study of secret writing which applies complex math rules to convert the original message into an incomprehensible form.  Graph theory is applied in the field of cryptography as graphs can be simply converted into matrices There are two approaches of cryptography; symmetric cryptography and asymmetric cryptography. This paper proposes a new connection between graph theory and symmetric cryptography to protect the information from the unauthorized parties. This proposed methodology uses a matrix as the secret key which adds more security to the cryptosystem. It converts the plaintext into several graphs and represents these graphs in their matrix form. Also, this generates several ciphertexts. The size of the resulting ciphertexts are larger than the plaintext size.

2017 ◽  
Andysah Putera Utama Siahaan

This study combines classic and modern cryptographic algorithms so that the data security of information more awake authenticity. Caesar cipher is the oldest classical cryptography which uses a symmetric key method is the key used for encryption is the same as the key used for the decryption process. Three-Pass Protocol is one of the modern cryptography where the process of sending a message does not need to distribute the key so that each party both the recipient and sender of the message does not need to know each lock. In this combination of receiving and sending messages using the Caesar Cipher algorithm for encryption and decryption, while for its delivery process using algorithms Three Pass protocol. The results from the combination of the two algorithms are to help the information sent is secure.

2018 ◽  
Vol 2018 ◽  
pp. 1-18 ◽  
Gesu Li ◽  
Zhipeng Cai ◽  
Guisheng Yin ◽  
Zaobo He ◽  
Madhuri Siddula

The recommender system is mainly used in the e-commerce platform. With the development of the Internet, social networks and e-commerce networks have broken each other’s boundaries. Users also post information about their favorite movies or books on social networks. With the enhancement of people’s privacy awareness, the personal information of many users released publicly is limited. In the absence of items rating and knowing some user information, we propose a novel recommendation method. This method provides a list of recommendations for target attributes based on community detection and known user attributes and links. Considering the recommendation list and published user information that may be exploited by the attacker to infer other sensitive information of users and threaten users’ privacy, we propose the CDAI (Infer Attributes based on Community Detection) method, which finds a balance between utility and privacy and provides users with safer recommendations.

Xhafer Krasniqi

The Internet of Things that is defined as anything that can be accessible anytime and anywhere provides connectivity to different objects and sensors around us and which will enable the transfer of different data between these objects and devices. A thing in the Internet of Things can be any natural or man-made object that can be assigned an IP address with a capability to exchange date over a network. There is a huge number of applications of IoT to benefit users, such as health monitors, smart homes, connected cars etc. If everything around us is connected and information about these things that can contain sensitive information, e.g. health and other personal information, are collected then these networks become very important and must be able to provide a proper security and privacy. It is believed that by 2020 there will be over 50 billion things that could be connected to Internet. Internet of things are very much associated with M2M (machine to machine communication) that is identified as a technology that makes objects smart, like smart homes, smart utility meters etc. M2M actually is considered to be a subset of IoT and which is mainly used for difficult and dangerous tasks, e.g. nuclear plants, etc. The deployment of IoT has already started and is expected to transform the way we live. According to Gartner, a technology research company, the Internet of Things has just reached the deployment stage by early adopters and the full deployment is expected in over ten years. From an industry angle, this paper will examine the market and technical trends of Internet of Things, main applications that will be supported by this technology, key issues and challenges faced by the industry, standards activities around IoT and finally the implementation landscape.

Pushkar Aneja

With the growing use of the Internet, and more people being connected with it, the security of the data becomes a major concern. It is necessary that the data can only be accessed by the intended receiver and no person in the middle makes alterations to it. This is achieved by encryption of the data using cryptography. This paper presents a comparative analysis of RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman), Caesar Cipher and Playfair Cipher cryptographic techniques. This paper also presents a comparative analysis of Symmetric Key Cryptography and Asymmetric Key Cryptography. Also, this paper includes the basic working of the above-mentioned techniques along with their implementation in C language over Visual Studio Code 1.49.3.

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