Cryptographic Algorithms
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2021 ◽  
pp. 494-505
Author(s):  
Alexandr A. Kuznetsov ◽  
Yurii Gorbenko ◽  
Anastasiia Kiian Anastasiia Kiian ◽  
Yuliia V. Ulianovska ◽  
Tetiana Kuznetsova

Pseudo-random number generator is an important mechanism for cryptographic information protection. It can be used independently to generate special data or as the most important element of security of other mechanisms for cryptographic information protection. The application of transformations in a group of points of elliptic and hypereliptic curves is an important direction for the designing of cryptographically stable pseudo-random sequences generators. This approach allows us to build  the resistant cryptographic algorithms in which the problem of finding a private key is associated with solving the discrete logarithm problem. This paper proposes a method for generating pseudo-random sequences of the maximum period using transformations on the elliptic curves. The maximum sequence period is provided by the use of recurrent transformations with the sequential formation of the elements of the point group of the elliptic curve. In this case, the problem of finding a private key is reduced to solving a theoretically complex discrete logarithm problem. The article also describes the block diagram of the device for generating pseudo-random sequences and the scheme for generating internal states of the generator.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Lihang Pan ◽  
Guoqing Tu ◽  
Shubo Liu ◽  
Zhaohui Cai ◽  
Xingxing Xiong

With the increasing popularity of the Internet of Things (IoT), the issue of its information security has drawn more and more attention. To overcome the resource constraint barrier for secure and reliable data transmission on the widely used IoT devices such as wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes, many researcher studies consider hardware acceleration of traditional cryptographic algorithms as one of the effective methods. Meanwhile, as one of the current research topics in the reduced instruction set computer (RISC), RISC-V provides a solid foundation for implementing domain-specific architecture (DSA). To this end, we propose an extended instruction scheme for the advanced encryption standard (AES) based on RISC-V custom instructions and present a coprocessor designed on the open-source core Hummingbird E203. The AES coprocessor uses direct memory access channels to achieve parallel data access and processing, which provides flexibility in memory space allocation and improves the efficiency of cryptographic components. Applications with embedded AES custom instructions running on an experimental prototype of the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform demonstrated a 25.3% to 37.9% improvement in running time over previous similar works when processing no less than 80 bytes of data. In addition, the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) experiments show that in most cases, the coprocessor only consumes up to 20% more power than the necessary AES operations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (6) ◽  
pp. 1113-1119
Author(s):  
Muhammad Fadlan ◽  
Haryansyah ◽  
Rosmini

One of the essential instruments in the cyber era is data. Therefore, maintaining data security is an important thing to do. One way that can be done to maintain data security is through cryptography. In cryptography, two basic techniques are commonly used, namely substitution techniques and transposition techniques. One of the weaknesses of the basic cryptographic techniques is the lower level of data security. This study proposed a super encryption model in securing data by combining cryptographic algorithms with substitution techniques, i.e., autokey cipher and transposition, i.e., columnar transposition cipher. This study used the Avalanche Effect method as a measurement tool for the proposed super encryption model. The test results have shown that the proposed super encryption model can provide a better level of security. The avalanche effect test on the five data test shows that the average AE value of the proposed super encryption model is 30.76%. This value is higher than the single autokey cipher algorithm of 1.66% and column transposition with a value of 18.03%. Other results from the five data test have shown that the proposed model has a high level of accuracy of 100% in terms of the decryption process results, which is the same as the initial data before going through the encryption process.  


Author(s):  
Kinjal Raut

Abstract: The internet has revolutionized advancements, it’s conveniences and uses come at the price of new perils. To be safe from being the victim of fraud, theft and other damage security and vigilance is critical. Cryptography plays an important role in securing information and communications using a set of rules, it ensures the integrity of our data. It maintains confidentiality by protecting the privacy of personal information stored in enterprise systems. Hence Encryption is the only way to ensure that your information remains secure while it is stored and being transmitted. Cryptographic Algorithms mathematically maintain the integrity, confidentiality and authenticity of sensitive information by preventing data disclosure, data tampering and repudiation. The three main types of cryptography are Symmetric Key Cryptography, Asymmetric Key Cryptography and Hash Functions. In this Paper, several important algorithms used for encryption and decryption are defined and analysed, the algorithms are DES, AES, ECC, RSA, MD5 Keywords: Cryptography, Encryption, Decryption, AES, DES, ECC, RSA, Blowfish, MD5


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ngoc Hong Tran ◽  
Tri Nguyen ◽  
Quoc Binh Nguyen ◽  
Susanna Pirttikangas ◽  
M-Tahar Kechadi

This paper investigates the situation in which exists the unshared Internet in specific areas while users in there need instant advice from others nearby. Hence, a peer-to-peer network is necessary and established by connecting all neighbouring mobile devices so that they can exchange questions and recommendations. However, not all received recommendations are reliable as users may be unknown to each other. Therefore, the trustworthiness of advice is evaluated based on the advisor's reputation score. The reputation score is locally stored in the user’s mobile device. It is not completely guaranteed that the reputation score is trustful if its owner uses it for a wrong intention. In addition, another privacy problem is about honestly auditing the reputation score on the advising user by the questioning user. Therefore, this work proposes a security model, namely Crystal, for securely managing distributed reputation scores and for preserving user privacy. Crystal ensures that the reputation score can be verified, computed and audited in a secret way. Another significant point is that the device in the peer-to-peer network has limits in physical resources such as bandwidth, power and memory. For this issue, Crystal applies lightweight Elliptic Curve Cryptographic algorithms so that Crystal consumes less the physical resources of devices. The experimental results prove that our proposed model performance is promising.


Webology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 767-789
Author(s):  
Leya Elizabeth Sunny ◽  
Dr. Varghese Paul

Stage of networking is quintessential task in which security comes into play. Securing these networks which contains confidential digital data that needs to secured will be the agenda of cryptography. Many cryptographic algorithms increment their strengths over parameters like key size, increasing the rounds of iteration and finally using confusion box as S-box as it has best robustness. So, this paper mainly focusses over securing digital data with the help of S-box function over Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm. For this, a plain text and key will be given to this DES as it extracts 8x8(64) bit characters from the key and converting them into its corresponding ASCII value and are concatenating to form an 8 value by taking mod16. These will give to 8 S-box in order to generate its corresponding output to make even more secure and also shows dynamic DES gives much result than other crypto methods. The evaluation of this integrated s-box and DES shows much fruitful results over factors like non-linearity, Avalanche criterion, Balance, Robustness to linear cryptanalysis, Robustness to differential cryptanalysis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 65 (1) ◽  
pp. 28-30
Author(s):  
Brian LaMacchia

Anticipating the output of the competition for new cryptographic algorithms.


Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (24) ◽  
pp. 8347
Author(s):  
Thanikodi Manoj Kumar ◽  
Kavitha Rani Balmuri ◽  
Adam Marchewka ◽  
Parameshachari Bidare Divakarachari ◽  
Srinivas Konda

Nowadays, a large number of digital data are transmitted worldwide using wireless communications. Therefore, data security is a significant task in communication to prevent cybercrimes and avoid information loss. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a highly efficient secure mechanism that outperforms other symmetric key cryptographic algorithms using message secrecy. However, AES is efficient in terms of software and hardware implementation, and numerous modifications are done in the conventional AES architecture to improve the performance. This research article proposes a significant modification to the AES architecture’s key expansion section to increase the speed of producing subkeys. The fork–join model of key expansion (FJMKE) architecture is developed to improve the speed of the subkey generation process, whereas the hardware resources of AES are minimized by avoiding the frequent computation of secret keys. The AES-FJMKE architecture generates all of the required subkeys in less than half the time required by the conventional architecture. The proposed AES-FJMKE architecture is designed and simulated using the Xilinx ISE 5.1 software. The Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) behaviour of the AES-FJMKE architecture is analysed by means of performance count for hardware resources, delay, and operating frequency. The existing AES architectures such as typical AES, AES-PNSG, AES-AT, AES-BE, ISAES, AES-RS, and AES-MPPRM are used to evaluate the efficiency of AES-FJMKE. The AES-FJMKE implemented using Spartan 6 FPGA used fewer slices (i.e., 76) than the AES-RS.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 7867-7874
Author(s):  
U. Iftikhar ◽  
K. Asrar ◽  
M. Waqas ◽  
S. A. Ali

Nowadays, terabytes of digital data are generated and sent online every second. However, securing this extent of information has always been a challenging task. Cryptography is a fundamental method for securing data, as it makes data unintelligible for attackers, offering privacy to authorized clients. Different cryptographic algorithms have different speeds and costs that make them suitable for different applications. For instance, banking applications need outrageous security amenities, as they utilize superior algorithms having greater requirements, while gaming applications focus more on speed and cost reduction. Consequently, cryptographic algorithms are chosen based on a client's prerequisites. This study compared DES, AES, Blowfish, and RSA, examining their speed, cost, and performance, and discussed their adequacy for use in wireless sensor networks and peer-to-peer communication.


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