Respiratory Drugs
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2021 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
Author(s):  
Asim Azhar ◽  
Nazia Hassan ◽  
Manvi Singh ◽  
Khaled Al-hosaini ◽  
Mohammad Amjad Kamal

: Nanoparticles (NPs) are projected to play a significant role in fighting against coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The various properties of NPs like magnetic and optical can be exploited to build diagnostic test kits. The unembellished morphological and physiochemical resemblances of SARS-CoV-2 with synthetic NPs make them a potent tool for mediation. Nanoparticles can be analytically functionalized with different proteins, polymers, and functional groups to perform specific inhibitory functions while also serving as delivery vehicles . Moreover, NPs can also be employed to prepare broad-spectrum respiratory drugs and vaccines that can guard seasonal flu and prepare the human race for the pandemic in the future. The present review outlines the role of NPs in detection, diagnostic and therapeutic against members of the coronavirus family. We emphasize nanomaterial-based approaches to address coronaviruses in general and SARS-CoV-2 in particular. We discuss NPs based detection systems like graphene (G-FET), biosensors, and plasmonic photothermal associated sensors. Inorganic, organic virus-like & self-assembly protein (VLP), and photodynamic inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 are also presented as therapeutic approaches exploiting NPs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (1) ◽  
pp. 18-24
Author(s):  
Prashant Komdeur ◽  
◽  
Thijs T Wingelaar ◽  
Rob A van Hulst ◽  
◽  
...  

Introduction: As the diving population is ageing, so are the diving instructors. Health issues and the use of prescribed medications are more common when ageing. The death of two diving instructors during one weekend in 2017 in the Netherlands, most likely due to cardiovascular disease, motivated investigation of the prevalence of relevant comorbidities in Dutch diving instructors. Methods: All Dutch Underwater Federation diving instructors were invited to complete an online questionnaire. Questions addressed diving experience and current and past medical history including the use of medications. Results: A response rate of 27% yielded 497 questionnaires (87% male, average age 57.3 years [SD 8.5]). Older instructors were over-represented among responders (82% of males and 75% of females > 50 years versus 66% of males and 51% of females among the invited cohort). Forty-six percent of respondents reported no current medical condition. Hypertension was the most commonly reported condition followed by hay fever and problems equalising ears and sinuses. Thirty-two percent reported no past medical condition. Problems of equalising ears and sinuses was the most common past medical condition, followed by hypertension, joint problems or surgery, and hay fever. Fifty-nine percent used non-prescription medication; predominantly analgesics and nose or ear drops. Forty-nine percent used prescription medicine, mostly cardiovascular and respiratory drugs. Body mass index (BMI) was > 25 kg·m-2 in 66% of males and 38% of females. All instructors with any type of cardiovascular disease were overweight. Conclusions: Nineteen percent of responding diving instructors suffered from cardiovascular disease with above-normal BMI and almost 60% used prescribed or non-prescribed medication. Some dived while suffering from medical issues or taking medications, which could lead to medical problems during emergency situations with their students.


2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Elisa Barbieri ◽  
Anna Cantarutti ◽  
Sara Cavagnis ◽  
Luigi Cantarutti ◽  
Eugenio Baraldi ◽  
...  

AbstractIn Italy, two clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of bronchiolitis were published in October 2014 and December 2015. We evaluated prescriptions for bronchiolitis in children aged 0–24 months before (December 2012–December 2014), in between (December 2014–December 2015) and after (December 2015–December 2018) the guidelines publications. Data were retrieved from the Pedianet database; the measured outcomes were prescriptions rates of antibiotics, corticosteroids, β2-agonists, and other respiratory drugs. In 1011 out of 1581 episodes, patients received at least one treatment, with a total of 2003 prescriptions. The rate of treated bronchiolitis decreased from 66% to 57% (p < 0.001) after the publication of the second guideline; the highest reduction was in younger patients (from 57% to 44%, p = 0.013). Overall antibiotic prescriptions rate did not change, with 31.6% of the patients still receiving them. Our results confirm unnecessary non-evidence-based treatments in the primary care setting, with few changes after the guidelines publications.


2020 ◽  
Vol 11 (SPL4) ◽  
pp. 2340-2343
Author(s):  
Khanwelkar ◽  
Sujata Jadhav C ◽  
Pritam M Sakhare ◽  
Sheshla Sadanandan ◽  
Thorat V M

In the present study, we have recorded the percentage of prescribing prevalence for different respiratory drugs and antibiotics and DDDs/1000inhabitants/day for different antibiotics to recognize the drug utilization trends in respiratory tract infections. In the present study, among the upper respiratory infection cases, 89.60% of the patients received antibiotics and culture was done in only 4.62% of patients. Among the lower respiratory infection cases all the patients were prescribed antibiotic therapy, culture was done in 39.58% of patients, and 55.26% was sterile. Pneumonia was found more in the age group of 41 to 70 whereas Nonspecific URTI and Sinusitis in the age group of 17 to 30. The sex distribution of the patients showed that the female constituted of 59.38% of the patients and male constituted of 40.56% of the patients. The upper respiratory tract infection constituted of 69.47% of patients and lower respiratory tract infection constituted of 31.16% of patients.


Author(s):  
S. Baokar ◽  
K. Mane ◽  
A. Bhujbal ◽  
S. Pharande ◽  
G. Patil ◽  
...  

Worldwide the R & D divisions of Pharma industry are actively involved in the development of new therapeutic agents. These agents may be either new entities or partial structural modification of the existing one. The recent FDA statistics represent that the average number of drug filings are increasing every year in the thrust areas like anti-cancer agents, anti-diabetic, antibiotics, cardio-vascular drugs, respiratory drugs etc. Sodium glucose co-transporter-2(SGLT-2) inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and biguanides are effective oral anti-diabetic agents used in treatment of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Therefore, the necessity to explore and compare the existing analytical and bioanalytical assays used for determination of such drugs either single or in combination is crucial. Many methods were reported in the literature for the bio-analysis and analysis of four novel gliptins combinations, empagliflozin-linagliptin, empagliflozin-metformin HCl, linagliptin-metformin HCl, empagliflozin-linagliptin-metformin HCl combination with application on Glyxambi®, Synjardy®, Jentadueto®, Trijardy® XR tablets respectively. Furthermore, this review offered an overview of different methods used for determination of every drug alone as empagliflozin from SGLT-2 inhibitors, linagliptin from DPP-4 inhibitors and metformin from biguanides in a tabulated comparative way. Moreover, the current review emphasizes the most common stability indicating assays to be of interest to the analysts in the area of drug control. This review helps in understanding the further need for the development of analytical methods for the estimation of such drugs.


2020 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 00479-2020
Author(s):  
Jesper Rømhild Davidsen ◽  
Lars Christian Lund ◽  
Christian B. Laursen ◽  
Jesper Hallas ◽  
Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen

BackgroundIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a well-characterised interstitial lung disease. Typically, IPF diagnosis is delayed due to nonspecific symptoms, but can also be delayed due to treatment attempts on false indication or due to treatment targeting common comorbidities. This observational study aimed to assess the dynamics in the medication and diagnosis patterns in the period before and after an IPF diagnosis.MethodsWe identified all Danish patients with IPF between 2002 and 2017. We evaluated new and ongoing drug treatments and incident diagnoses 36 months before and 12 months after an IPF diagnosis by use of Danish nationwide registries. To aid interpretation, 10 random controls were recruited for each case.ResultsA total of 650 IPF patients were identified (median age 73 years (interquartile range 65–78), 70.3% males). Prior to the IPF diagnosis, the most prevalent diagnoses were dyspnoea and non-IPF interstitial lung diseases. For drug use, IPF patients had higher initiation rates for antibiotics, oral corticosteroids and mucolytics. In terms of drug volume, IPF patients used more respiratory drugs, antibiotics, immunosuppressants, corticosteroids, proton pump inhibitors, benzodiazepines and opium alkaloids within the 6 months preceding their IPF diagnosis, compared to the controls. Overall drug use decreased after an IPF diagnosis, mainly due to a reduced glucocorticoid and cardiovascular drug use.ConclusionAmong IPF patients, an increased drug use was observed for diagnoses with symptoms overlapping those of IPF, particularly this was observed during the last 6 months before an IPF diagnosis. This emphasises the need for an increased IPF awareness.


2019 ◽  
Vol 14 (9) ◽  
pp. 613-615
Author(s):  
Philip O. Anderson
Keyword(s):  

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