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Debesh Mishra ◽  
Hullash Chauhan ◽  
Dinesh Kumar Mishra ◽  
Suchismita Satapathy

COVID-19 has been primarily regarded as a respiratory disease, and until a safer and effective treatment or vaccine becomes available, the prevention of COVID-19 may continue through interventions based on non-pharmaceutical measures such as maintaining of physical distances and use of personal protective equipment like facemasks, etc. Therefore, an attempt was made in this study to explore the drawbacks with the presently available facemasks for protection from COVID-19 viruses in the state of Odisha in India, and also to explore the possible opportunities for further development of these facemasks. The associated discomforts; strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of existing facemasks in Odisha; possible opportunities for “Make in India” of these facemasks; along with safer use have been analyzed with the help of interpretive structural modelling (ISM) approach followed by MICMAC analysis.

Prod. Roshan R. Kolte

Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly affected our day-to-day life the world trade and movements. Wearing a face mask is very essentials for protecting against virus. People also wear mask to cover themselves in order to reduce the spread of covid virus. The corona virus covid-19 pandemic is causing a global health crisis so the effective protection method is wearing a face mask in public area according to the world health organization (WHO). The covid-19 pandemic forced government across the world to impose lockdowns to prevent virus transmission report indicates that wearing face mask while at work clearly reduce the risk of transmission .we will use the dataset to build a covid-19 face mask detector with computer vision using python,opencv,tensorflow,keras library and deep learning. Our goal is to identify whether the person on image or live video stream is wearing mask or not wearing face mask this can help to society and whole organization to avoid the transfer of virus one person to antother.we used computer vision and deep learning modules to detect a with mask image and without mask image. Keywords: face detection, face recognition, CNN, SVM, opencv, python, tensorflow, keras.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 023-030
Huda Sahib Abdul Mohammed Al-Rawazq

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV 2) or 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is quickly spreading to the rest of the world, from its origin in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. And becoming a global pandemic that affects the world's most powerful countries. The goal of this review is to assist scientists, researchers, and others in responding to the current Coronavirus disease (covid-19) is a worldwide public health contingency state. This review discusses current evidence based on recently published studies which is related to the origin of the virus, epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and all studies in Iraq for the effect of covid-19 diseases, as well as provide a reference for future researchers. The findings of this review show significant differences across gender, age group, area of residence, environmental agents (temperature, humidity), and people with chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, respiratory disorders, and immunocompromised disease). To control the pandemic, information about COVID-19 was disseminated to people, including wearing a face mask and using a social distancing strategy as an effective tool for controlling COVID-19. More education and progress are required to convince the public that the vaccine is both effective and safe.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 158
Ugo Avila-Ponce de León ◽  
Eric Avila-Vales ◽  
Kuanlin Huang

In a population with ongoing vaccination, the trajectory of a pandemic is determined by how the virus spreads in unvaccinated and vaccinated individuals that exhibit distinct transmission dynamics based on different levels of natural and vaccine-induced immunity. We developed a mathematical model that considers both subpopulations and immunity parameters, including vaccination rates, vaccine effectiveness, and a gradual loss of protection. The model forecasted the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant in the US under varied transmission and vaccination rates. We further obtained the control reproduction number and conducted sensitivity analyses to determine how each parameter may affect virus transmission. Although our model has several limitations, the number of infected individuals was shown to be a magnitude greater (~10×) in the unvaccinated subpopulation compared to the vaccinated subpopulation. Our results show that a combination of strengthening vaccine-induced immunity and preventative behavioral measures like face mask-wearing and contact tracing will likely be required to deaccelerate the spread of infectious SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Morgan Levenez ◽  
Kate Lambrechts ◽  
Simona Mrakic-Sposta ◽  
Alessandra Vezzoli ◽  
Peter Germonpré ◽  

Impaired flow mediated dilation (FMD), an index of vascular stress, is known after SCUBA diving. This is related to a dysfunction of nitric oxide (NO) availability and a disturbance of the redox status, possibly induced by hyperoxic/hyperbaric gas breathing. SCUBA diving is usually performed with a mask only covering “half face” (HF) and therefore forcing oral breathing. Nasal NO production is involved in vascular homeostasis and, as consequence, can significantly reduce NO possibly promoting vascular dysfunction. More recently, the utilization of “full-face” (FF) mask, allowing nasal breathing, became more frequent, but no reports are available describing their effects on vascular functions in comparison with HF masks. In this study we assessed and compared the effects of a standard shallow dive (20 min at 10 m) wearing either FF or a HF mask on different markers of vascular function (FMD), oxidative stress (ROS, 8-iso-PGF2α) and NO availability and metabolism (NO2, NOx and 3-NT and iNOS expression). Data from a dive breathing a hypoxic (16% O2 at depth) gas mixture with HF mask are shown allowing hyperoxic/hypoxic exposure. Our data suggest that nasal breathing might significantly reduce the occurrence of vascular dysfunction possibly due to better maintenance of NO production and bioavailability, resulting in a better ability to counter reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Besides the obvious outcomes in terms of SCUBA diving safety, our data permit a better understanding of the effects of oxygen concentrations, either in normal conditions or as a strategy to induce selected responses in health and disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 659-662
Akansha Gupta ◽  
Ritesh Kumar Chaurasiya

: In normal population and patient, the significant increase in dry eyes manifestations have been observed. Similarly, aggravated symptoms and complaints of dryness have also been observed in clinical and hospital staff by using a face mask for an extended time period. The purpose of the study was to observe the association between symptoms of dry eyes and the duration of using masks in health professionals.: An unspecified questionnaire was distributed using Google Forms through different social media platforms, asking each respondent to contribute to the survey. Data were collected from December 2021 to January 2021. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was considered if p-value was less than 0.05. A total of 39 responses was included for analysis in the study. There was a positive correlation between the frequency of the symptoms of dryness and the duration of using the mask. Similarly, the severity of the symptoms for dry eyes was strongly correlated with an increase in the frequency of symptoms for dry eyes.The finding reflects that the frequency of the dryness along with the severity will increase with the increase in the duration of wearing a mask. Moreover, it also suggests that cloth mask is the probable predisposing factor for the increase in the dry eye symptoms in this study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (4) ◽  
pp. 118-125
A. B. Neuzorava ◽  
S. V. Skirkovsky

During the COVID-19, pandemics or worsening virus situation, taxi and regular-route bus drivers are recommended to work in medical masks. However, the quantitative and qualitative influence of wearing protective face masks on safety of driving vehicles has not been previously studied. Therefore, this became the objective of preliminary studies to determine the specifics of the influence of a face protective mask on the change in psychophysiological qualities of a car driver as a factor in safety eventuality under urban traffic conditions.The method of an open-ended survey of 108 healthy adult drivers was used to obtain a quantitative subjective assessment of the effect of face masks on changing driving safety conditions and a comfortable emotional state while driving. A qualitative analysis of assessment of the level of psychophysiological qualities of drivers wearing and not wearing a face mask was carried out using Meleti hardware-software complex.A sharp decrease in neuropsychic functions with a simultaneous increase in quality of thinking and visual analysis of the traffic situation was revealed regarding the drivers wearing a face protective mask compared to those driving without a mask while the level of psychomotor reaction remains unchanged regardless of the gender of the driver.The subjective assessment of survey participants of the effect of a face mask on professionally important, psychophysiological characteristics of drivers revealed a significant (41,7 %) or insignificant (20,4 %) decrease in reaction, while 38 % of drivers did not notice significant changes in driving because of the effect of the mask.Based on these results, it is assumed that the face mask may serve as a predictor of a road pre-accident situation.To assess the effect of the face mask on the driver, a coefficient of eventuality of reducing road safety is proposed. It is recommended to use it as an additional factor in a situational pandemic environment when developing recommendations for the use of face masks for car and bus drivers, and when analysing the causes of road accidents. 

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262344
Maria Tsantani ◽  
Vita Podgajecka ◽  
Katie L. H. Gray ◽  
Richard Cook

The use of surgical-type face masks has become increasingly common during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent findings suggest that it is harder to categorise the facial expressions of masked faces, than of unmasked faces. To date, studies of the effects of mask-wearing on emotion recognition have used categorisation paradigms: authors have presented facial expression stimuli and examined participants’ ability to attach the correct label (e.g., happiness, disgust). While the ability to categorise particular expressions is important, this approach overlooks the fact that expression intensity is also informative during social interaction. For example, when predicting an interactant’s future behaviour, it is useful to know whether they are slightly fearful or terrified, contented or very happy, slightly annoyed or angry. Moreover, because categorisation paradigms force observers to pick a single label to describe their percept, any additional dimensionality within observers’ interpretation is lost. In the present study, we adopted a complementary emotion-intensity rating paradigm to study the effects of mask-wearing on expression interpretation. In an online experiment with 120 participants (82 female), we investigated how the presence of face masks affects the perceived emotional profile of prototypical expressions of happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise. For each of these facial expressions, we measured the perceived intensity of all six emotions. We found that the perceived intensity of intended emotions (i.e., the emotion that the actor intended to convey) was reduced by the presence of a mask for all expressions except for anger. Additionally, when viewing all expressions except surprise, masks increased the perceived intensity of non-intended emotions (i.e., emotions that the actor did not intend to convey). Intensity ratings were unaffected by presentation duration (500ms vs 3000ms), or attitudes towards mask wearing. These findings shed light on the ambiguity that arises when interpreting the facial expressions of masked faces.

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