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Galaxies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 53
Author(s):  
Jonathan H. Jiang ◽  
Philip E. Rosen ◽  
Kristen A. Fahy

A foundational model has been developed based on trends built from empirical data of space exploration and computing power through the first six plus decades of the Space Age, which projects the earliest possible launch dates for human-crewed missions from cis-lunar space to selected Solar System and interstellar destinations. The model uses computational power, expressed as transistors per microprocessor, as a key broadly limiting factor for deep space missions’ reach and complexity. The goal of this analysis is to provide a projected timeframe for humanity to become a multi-world species through off-world colonization, and in so doing all but guarantee the long-term survival of the human race from natural and human-caused calamities that could befall life on Earth. Beginning with the development and deployment of the first nuclear weapons near the end of World War II, humanity entered a ‘Window of Peril’, which will not be safely closed until robust off-world colonies become a reality. Our findings suggest that the first human-crewed missions to land on Mars, selected Asteroid Belt objects, and selected moons of Jupiter and Saturn can occur before the end of the 21st century. Launches of human-crewed interstellar missions to exoplanet destinations within roughly 40 lightyears of the Solar System are seen as possible during the 23rd century and launch of intragalactic missions by the end of the 24th century. An aggressive and sustained space exploration program, which includes colonization, is thus seen as critical to the long-term survival of the human race.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jonathan Jiang ◽  
Philip Rosen ◽  
Kristen Fahy

Abstract A foundational model has been developed based on trends built from empirical data of space exploration and computing power through the first six plus decades of the Space Age which projects earliest possible launch dates for human-crewed missions from cis-lunar space to selected Solar System and interstellar destinations. The model uses computational power, expressed as transistors per microprocessor, as a key broadly limiting factor for deep space missions’ reach and complexity. The goal of this analysis is to provide a projected timeframe for humanity to become a multi-world species through off-world colonization, and in so doing all but guarantees the long-term survival of the human race from natural and human-caused calamities that could befall life on Earth. Beginning with the development and deployment of the first nuclear weapons near the end of World War II, humanity entered a ‘Window of Peril’ which will not be safely closed until robust off-world colonies become a reality. Our findings suggest the first human-crewed missions to land on Mars, selected Asteroid Belt objects, and selected moons of Jupiter and Saturn can occur before the end of the 21st century. Launches of human-crewed interstellar missions to exoplanet destinations within roughly 40 lightyears of the Solar System are seen as possible during the 23rd century and launch of intragalactic missions by the end of the 24th century. An aggressive and sustained space exploration program, which includes colonization, is thus seen as critical to the long-term survival of the human race.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nimisha Ghosh ◽  
Indrajit Saha ◽  
Jnanendra Prasad Sarkar ◽  
Ujjwal Maulik

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has gripped the entire world, almost paralysing the human race in its entirety. The virus rapidly transmits via human-to-human medium resulting in a massive increase of patients with COVID-19. In order to curb the spread of the disease, an immediate action of complete lockdown was implemented across the globe. India with a population of over 1.3 billion was not an exception and took the challenge to execute phase-wise lockdown, unlock and partial lockdown activities. In this study, we intend to summarise these different phases that the Government of India (GoI) imposed to fight against SARS-CoV-2 so that it can act as a reference guideline to help controlling future waves of COVID-19 and similar pandemic situations in India.


Author(s):  
Madhu Bansode ◽  
Pankaj Bansode

Ever since the human race has been exposed to the novel COVID 19 illness, newer and newer intriguing features of the COVID viral plethora are seen with each passing day. Many manifestations of the COVID 19 illness have been baffling and unexplainable to researchers currently. One such unusual presentation seen is ‘happy hypoxia’ or silent hypoxemia in a third of patients' total number. This review article is intending to put some light on the puzzling condition of happy hypoxia. We authors refer you through various theories postulated for happy hypoxia. It has definite clinical implications in the sense that it can be lifesaving if detected early and promptly in a COVID patient. We conclude that happy hypoxia or silent hypoxemia is a new entity and should be diagnosed with a high index of suspicion in COVID suspect patients in both young patients with no co morbidities and the elderly and diabetics. Diagnostic modalities like pulse oximeter should be widely used at hospitals and clinics and for self-monitoring by the patients at homes. Also, chest X-rays or HRCT imaging of the lungs is essential in the early stages to identify the early infective changes with compromised lung function and rule out this happy hypoxia. Also, further research is essential to find the exact ethologic of this subclinical though ominous prognostic entity.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hannah C. Copley ◽  
Loren Gragert ◽  
Andrew R. Leach ◽  
Vasilis Kosmoliaptsis

Development of adaptive immunity after COVID-19 and after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is predicated on recognition of viral peptides, presented on HLA class II molecules, by CD4+ T-cells. We capitalised on extensive high-resolution HLA data on twenty five human race/ethnic populations to investigate the role of HLA polymorphism on SARS-CoV-2 immunogenicity at the population and individual level. Within populations, we identify wide inter-individual variability in predicted peptide presentation from structural, non-structural and accessory SARS-CoV-2 proteins, according to individual HLA genotype. However, we find similar potential for anti-SARS-CoV-2 cellular immunity at the population level suggesting that HLA polymorphism is unlikely to account for observed disparities in clinical outcomes after COVID-19 among different race/ethnic groups. Our findings provide important insight on the potential role of HLA polymorphism on development of protective immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection and after vaccination and a firm basis for further experimental studies in this field.


2021 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
Author(s):  
Asim Azhar ◽  
Nazia Hassan ◽  
Manvi Singh ◽  
Khaled Al-hosaini ◽  
Mohammad Amjad Kamal

: Nanoparticles (NPs) are projected to play a significant role in fighting against coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The various properties of NPs like magnetic and optical can be exploited to build diagnostic test kits. The unembellished morphological and physiochemical resemblances of SARS-CoV-2 with synthetic NPs make them a potent tool for mediation. Nanoparticles can be analytically functionalized with different proteins, polymers, and functional groups to perform specific inhibitory functions while also serving as delivery vehicles . Moreover, NPs can also be employed to prepare broad-spectrum respiratory drugs and vaccines that can guard seasonal flu and prepare the human race for the pandemic in the future. The present review outlines the role of NPs in detection, diagnostic and therapeutic against members of the coronavirus family. We emphasize nanomaterial-based approaches to address coronaviruses in general and SARS-CoV-2 in particular. We discuss NPs based detection systems like graphene (G-FET), biosensors, and plasmonic photothermal associated sensors. Inorganic, organic virus-like & self-assembly protein (VLP), and photodynamic inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 are also presented as therapeutic approaches exploiting NPs.


Author(s):  
Swati Maldhure ◽  
Vaibhav Sonwani ◽  
Ranjeet Ambad ◽  
Dhruba Hari Chandi

The making of new things at an incredibly small “nano” scale (100,000 times smaller than the human hair) is called nanotechnology and it is one of the most exciting and fast-moving technology in today’s world. Scientists and engineers have been working hard to make the maximum utilization of this knowledge towards applications like cure for certain diseases, to create certain renewable sources of energy and to bring human race safety into next millennium, thus nanomedicine being one of the most important evolution of nanotechnology. In this research, we have done a cross sectional observation, knowledge, perception and attitude study among 56 residents of various clinical departments of Datta Meghe Medical College. According to our survey, it was evident that only 48.21% of the residents were aware of the science of nanotechnology. Television was the source for most of them to know about it. Approximately 35.71% knew the size of nanoparticles which is really low. Of all the residence who knew about nanotechnology, most of the (42.86%) them knew about its application in healthcare whereas comparatively less (28.57%) were aware of its applications in areas besides healthcare. As expected very few (14.29%) had practically used this advanced science in health care. And hardly any knew about limitations or long-term side effects of nanotechnology in health care but most of them supported it. With our limited analysis and discussion, we could conclude that awareness and knowledge about nanotechnology among residents who are our upcoming clinicians, was deficient in more than half of them and inadequate among those who had. Universities need to add this subject in their curriculums and have an interdisplinary approach towards this recent advance so that all the medical students and upcoming clinicians have awareness and adequate knowledge regarding nanotechnology & nanomedicine which is going to be the future of medicine having significant impact on our health, comfort and lifestyle.


2021 ◽  
Vol VI (I) ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Naiha Tahir ◽  
Ayema Rehman ◽  
Muhammad Zain ◽  
Mubashir Rehman

The novel Coronavirus knew as Covid 19 or SARS-CoV-2, is a newly discovered virus responsible for the huge global pandemic infecting the human race at a deadly pace. This is an RNA enveloped virus that targets the human respiratory system severely while damaging other major systems. Covid 19 pandemic is similar to the severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) endemic and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but this one is spreading at a fire-speed. The outbreak was known as pneumonia in the beginning; however, it became a threat later on, owing to its high contagion rate. The origin of this virus was sought to be from the seafood wholesale market, very popular in the city of Wuhan. This review has been put together to overview the disease, its etiology, clinical features and treatment methods. The focal point of this review is to highlight the current management of this disease.


2021 ◽  
pp. 119-126
Author(s):  
BOGDAN BRUDAR ◽  
NENAD PERIĆ

The paper analyzes the idea and definition of transhumanism, as well as its currents and relationship with the idea of transcendence. It presents different types of art and works that have to do with transhumanist ideas or that precede them. Furthermore, it deals with the possibilities, brought before humanity based on the further development of transhumanism in terms of the advantages and dangers that lie ahead of it. It emphasizes the idea that art today, aside from its main principles, also has to point out the dark possibilities of the development of the human race and reveal the potential negative aspects of transhumanism before they become a reality. Art should inspire thought, so the authors who deal with topics related to transhumanism have the responsibility to present and analyze it while giving respect to the concept of artistic freedom and creativity, while the art consumers are to critically analyze transhumanist ideas and contents.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (6) ◽  
pp. 229-236
Author(s):  
Mohammad Afzal Hossain Hossain

This research analyzes how nature, human and non-human, have been represented in Guy de Maupassant’s short story The Horla through an ecocritical lens. In its fundamental form, the ecocritical theoretical framework investigates how nature, landscape, and places have been represented in a literary text and explore how human and non-human interrelations have been portrayed. In this story, Maupassant has portrayed nature as a positive, healing force and delved into the anthropocentric and anthropomorphic constructivist attitude to non-human, invisible, emergent being, in this context, the Horla. The narrator’s anthropocentric world view has denied justice toward Horla to exist, fearing he will shake the human-centred ecological hierarchy. According to the Deep Ecological philosophical position or ecosophy, all things, including spiritual being that cannot be seen, are interconnected and have their necessary position in various modalities of Nature. Denial of the existence of a new emerging entity and the inability to schematize and adopt it will destroy the new being and the human race itself. The paper has deployed two major research methods; textual analysis and archival method. Apart from these two methods, discourse analysis method has also been used where deemed relevant and necessary. The paper finds that The Horla is not merely a generic horror story that has portrayed the inner psychological state of the narrator in a fantastique manner but also an expository one of human frailties and human denial of a being that deemed more intelligent and perfect than the human being, fearing to lose the anthropocentric dominance.


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