idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 271 ◽  
pp. 125-136
Erik H. Ander ◽  
Abul Kashem ◽  
Huaqing Zhao ◽  
Kelly Montgomery ◽  
Gengo Sunagawa ◽  

Salim A. Si-Mohamed ◽  
Mouhamad Nasser ◽  
Marion Colevray ◽  
Olivier Nempont ◽  
Pierre-Jean Lartaud ◽  

Abstract Objectives To compare the lung CT volume (CTvol) and pulmonary function tests in an interstitial lung disease (ILD) population. Then to evaluate the CTvol loss between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and non-IPF and explore a prognostic value of annual CTvol loss in IPF. Methods We conducted in an expert center a retrospective study between 2005 and 2018 on consecutive patients with ILD. CTvol was measured automatically using commercial software based on a deep learning algorithm. In the first group, Spearman correlation coefficients (r) between forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), and CTvol were calculated. In a second group, annual CTvol loss was calculated using linear regression analysis and compared with the Mann–Whitney test. In a last group of IPF patients, annual CTvol loss was calculated between baseline and 1-year CTs for investigating with the Youden index a prognostic value of major adverse event at 3 years. Univariate and log-rank tests were calculated. Results In total, 560 patients (4610 CTs) were analyzed. For 1171 CTs, CTvol was correlated with FVC (r: 0.86) and TLC (r: 0.84) (p < 0.0001). In 408 patients (3332 CT), median annual CTvol loss was 155.7 mL in IPF versus 50.7 mL in non-IPF (p < 0.0001) over 5.03 years. In 73 IPF patients, a relative annual CTvol loss of 7.9% was associated with major adverse events (log-rank, p < 0.0001) in univariate analysis (p < 0.001). Conclusions Automated lung CT volume may be an alternative or a complementary biomarker to pulmonary function tests for the assessment of lung volume loss in ILD. Key Points • There is a good correlation between lung CT volume and forced vital capacity, as well as for with total lung capacity measurements (r of 0.86 and 0.84 respectively, p < 0.0001). • Median annual CT volume loss is significantly higher in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis than in patients with other fibrotic interstitial lung diseases (155.7 versus 50.7 mL, p < 0.0001). • In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a relative annual CT volume loss higher than 9.4% is associated with a significantly reduced mean survival time at 2.0 years versus 2.8 years (log-rank, p < 0.0001).

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jing Geng ◽  
Yuan Liu ◽  
Huaping Dai ◽  
Chen Wang

Fatty acid metabolism, including the de novo synthesis, uptake, oxidation, and derivation of fatty acids, plays several important roles at cellular and organ levels. Recent studies have identified characteristic changes in fatty acid metabolism in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lungs, which implicates its dysregulation in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Here, we review the evidence for how fatty acid metabolism contributes to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, focusing on the profibrotic processes associated with specific types of lung cells, including epithelial cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts. We also summarize the potential therapeutics that target this metabolic pathway in treating IPF.

Yuichiro Yasuda ◽  
Tatsuya Nagano ◽  
Shintaro Izumi ◽  
Mina Yasuda ◽  
Kosuke Tsuruno ◽  

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 235
Roxana Maria Wasnick ◽  
Irina Shalashova ◽  
Jochen Wilhelm ◽  
Ali Khadim ◽  
Nicolai Schmidt ◽  

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal degenerative lung disease of unknown etiology. Although in its final stages it implicates, in a reactive manner, all lung cell types, the initial damage involves the alveolar epithelial compartment, in particular the alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2s). AEC2s serve dual progenitor and surfactant secreting functions, both of which are deeply impacted in IPF. Thus, we hypothesize that the size of the surfactant processing compartment, as measured by LysoTracker incorporation, allows the identification of different epithelial states in the IPF lung. Flow cytometry analysis of epithelial LysoTracker incorporation delineates two populations (Lysohigh and Lysolow) of AEC2s that behave in a compensatory manner during bleomycin injury and in the donor/IPF lung. Employing flow cytometry and transcriptomic analysis of cells isolated from donor and IPF lungs, we demonstrate that the Lysohigh population expresses all classical AEC2 markers and is drastically diminished in IPF. The Lysolow population, which is increased in proportion in IPF, co-expressed AEC2 and basal cell markers, resembling the phenotype of the previously identified intermediate AEC2 population in the IPF lung. In that regard, we provide an in-depth flow-cytometry characterization of LysoTracker uptake, HTII-280, proSP-C, mature SP-B, NGFR, KRT5, and CD24 expression in human lung epithelial cells. Combining functional analysis with extracellular and intracellular marker expression and transcriptomic analysis, we advance the current understanding of epithelial cell behavior and fate in lung fibrosis.

2022 ◽  
Eleanor Valenzi ◽  
Harinath Bahudhanapati ◽  
Jiangning Tan ◽  
Tracy Tabib ◽  
Daniel I Sullivan ◽  

In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) myofibroblasts are key effectors of fibrosis and architectural distortion by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix and their acquired contractile capacity. Single-cell RNA-sequencing has precisely defined the IPF myofibroblast transcriptome, but identifying critical transcription factor activity by this approach is imprecise. We performed and integrated snATAC-seq and scRNA-seq from human IPF and donor control explants to identify differentially accessible chromatin regions and enriched transcription factor motifs within lung cell populations. TWIST1 and other E-box transcription factor motifs were significantly enriched in IPF myofibroblasts compared to both IPF non-myogenic and control fibroblasts. TWIST1 expression was also selectively upregulated in IPF myofibroblasts. Overexpression of Twist1 in lung COL1A2-expressing fibroblasts in bleomycin-injured mice was associated with increased collagen synthesis. Our studies utilizing human multiomic single-cell analyses combined with in vivo murine disease models confirm a critical regulatory function for TWIST1 in IPF myofibroblast activity in the fibrotic lung. Understanding the global process of opening TWIST1 and other E-box TF motifs that govern myofibroblast differentiation may identify new therapeutic interventions for fibrotic pulmonary diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Timothy M. Dempsey ◽  
Viengneesee Thao ◽  
James P. Moriarty ◽  
Bijan J. Borah ◽  
Andrew H. Limper

Abstract Background The anti-fibrotic medications nintedanib and pirfenidone were approved in the United States for use in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis several years ago. While there is a growing body of evidence surrounding their clinical effectiveness, these medications are quite expensive and no prior cost-effectiveness analysis has been performed in the United States. Methods A previously published Markov model performed in the United Kingdom was replicated using United States data to project the lifetime costs and health benefits of treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with: (1) symptom management; (2) pirfenidone; or (3) nintedanib. For the cost-effectiveness analysis, strategies were ranked by increasing costs and then checked for dominating treatment strategies. Then an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for the dominant therapy. Results The anti-fibrotic medications were found to cost more than $110,000 per year compared to $12,291 annually for symptom management. While pirfenidone was slightly more expensive than nintedanib and provided the same amount of benefit, neither medication was found to be cost-effective in this U.S.-based analysis, with an average cost of $1.6 million to gain one additional quality-adjusted life year over symptom management. Conclusions Though the anti-fibrotics remain the only effective treatment option for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and the data surrounding their clinical effectiveness continues to grow, they are not considered cost-effective treatment strategies in the United States due to their high price.

Daniel S. Glass ◽  
David Grossfeld ◽  
Heather A. Renna ◽  
Priya Agarwala ◽  
Peter Spiegler ◽  

Lung ◽  
2022 ◽  
Hyun J. Kim ◽  
Laurie D. Snyder ◽  
Megan L. Neely ◽  
Anne S. Hellkamp ◽  
David L. Hotchkin ◽  

Abstract Purpose To assess the impact of concomitant emphysema on outcomes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods The IPF-PRO Registry is a US registry of patients with IPF. The presence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) at enrollment was determined by investigators’ review of an HRCT scan. Associations between emphysema and clinical outcomes were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Of 934 patients, 119 (12.7%) had CPFE. Compared with patients with IPF alone, patients with CPFE were older (median 72 vs 70 years); higher proportions were current/former smokers (88.2% vs 63.7%), used oxygen with activity (49.6% vs 31.9%) or at rest (30.8% vs 18.4%), had congestive heart failure (13.6% vs 4.8%) and had prior respiratory hospitalization (25.0% vs 16.7%); they had higher FVC (median 71.8 vs 69.4% predicted) and lower DLco (median 35.3 vs 43.6% predicted). In patients with CPFE and IPF alone, respectively, at 1 year, rates of death or lung transplant were 17.5% (95% CI: 11.7, 25.8) and 11.2% (9.2, 13.6) and rates of hospitalization were 21.6% (14.6, 29.6) and 20.6% (17.9, 23.5). There were no significant associations between emphysema and any outcome after adjustment for baseline variables. No baseline variable predicted outcomes better in IPF alone than in CPFE. Conclusion Approximately 13% of patients in the IPF-PRO Registry had CPFE. Physiologic characteristics and comorbidities of patients with CPFE differed from those of patients with IPF alone, but the presence of emphysema did not drive outcomes after adjustment for baseline covariates. Trial registration, NCT01915511; registered August 5, 2013.

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