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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Peijun Tang ◽  
Ermin Liang ◽  
Xuxia Zhang ◽  
Yanjun Feng ◽  
Huafeng Song ◽  

Objectives: Subclinical tuberculosis (TB) represents a substantial proportion of individuals with TB disease, although limited evidence is available to understand the epidemiological characteristics of these cases. We aimed to explore the prevalence of subclinical patients with TB and identify the underlying association between the subclinical TB cases in the study setting and the Beijing genotype.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted among patients with incident TB at the Fifth People’s Hospital of Suzhou between January and December 2018. A total of 380 patients with TB were included in our analysis.Results: Of the 380 patients, 81.8% were active TB cases, whereas the other 18.2% were subclinical TB cases. Compared with patients aged 65 years and older, the risk of having subclinical TB is higher among younger patients. The use of smear, culture, and Xpert identified 3, 16, and 13 subclinical TB cases, respectively. When using a combination of positive culture and Xpert results, the sensitivity improved to 33.3%. In addition, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly elevated in the active TB group compared with that in the subclinical TB group. We also observed that the proportion of the Beijing genotype in the subclinical TB group was significantly lower than that in the active TB group.Conclusion: To conclude, our data demonstrate that approximately one-fifth of patients with TB were subclinical in Suzhou. Mycobacterium tuberculosis could be detected by the existing microbiologic diagnostics in one-third of patients with subclinical TB. The patients with subclinical TB are more prone to having low neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio values than those with active TB. Additionally, non-Beijing genotype strains are associated with subclinical TB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jia-Gui Ma ◽  
Bo Zhu ◽  
Li Jiang ◽  
Qi Jiang ◽  
Xiu-Ming Xi

Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that the gender and/or age of a patient may influence the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. Our aim was to determine whether there are gender- and age-based differences in clinical outcomes for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods We performed a multicentre retrospective study involving adult patients who were admitted to the ICU and received at least 24 h of mechanical ventilation (MV). The patients were divided into two groups based on gender and, subsequently, further grouped based on gender and age < or ≥ 65 years. The primary outcome measure was hospital mortality. Results A total of 853 mechanically ventilated patients were evaluated. Of these patients, 63.2% were men and 61.5% were ≥ 65 years of age. The hospital mortality rate for men was significantly higher than that for women in the overall study population (P = 0.042), and this difference was most pronounced among elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years; P = 0.006). The durations of MV, ICU lengths of stay (LOS), and hospital LOS were significantly longer for men than for women among younger patients (P ≤ 0.013) but not among elderly patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender was independently associated with hospital mortality among elderly patients but not among younger patients. Conclusions There were important gender- and age-based differences in the outcomes among mechanically ventilated ICU patients. The combination of male gender and advanced age is strongly associated with hospital mortality.

2022 ◽  
pp. 175319342110702
Alex M. Hollenberg ◽  
Jennifer Z. Mao ◽  
Warren C. Hammert

The purpose of this study was to assess the recovery patterns following surgery for distal radial fracture (DRF) in patients over ( n = 99) and under ( n = 273) the age of 65 using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) and Pain Interference (PI) questionnaires. Both the older and younger cohorts showed postoperative improvement in PF and PI. The younger cohort had higher PF scores from 1 to 6 months postoperatively, however, PI scores were not significantly different between the cohorts during any period. A greater proportion of younger patients achieved the minimal clinically important difference improvement on the PROMIS PF (80% versus 66%) and PI (88% versus 75%) scales. To appropriately manage postoperative expectations, older patients should be counselled that they would likely experience most of their functional recovery by 3 months and limitations due to pain would likely be stable by 1 month. Level of evidence: II

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Viktoria Fruhwirth ◽  
Lisa Berger ◽  
Thomas Gattringer ◽  
Simon Fandler-Höfler ◽  
Markus Kneihsl ◽  

Background: Efficient treatment of modifiable vascular risk factors decreases reoccurrence of ischemic stroke, which is of uttermost importance in younger patients. In this longitudinal pilot study, we thus assessed the effect of a newly developed smartphone app for risk factor management in such a cohort.Methods: The app conveys key facts about stroke, provides motivational support for a healthy lifestyle, and a reminder function for medication intake and blood pressure measurement. Between January 2019 and February 2020, we consecutively invited patients with ischemic stroke aged between 18 and 55 years to participate. Patients in the intervention group used the app between hospital discharge and 3-month follow-up. The control group received standard clinical care. Modifiable risk factors (physical activity, nutrition, alcohol consumption, smoking behavior, obesity, and hypertension) were assessed during the initial hospital stay and at a dedicated stroke outpatient department three months post-stroke.Results: The study cohort comprised 21 patients in the app intervention group (62% male; age = 41 ± 11 years; education = 12 ± 3 years) and 21 sex-, age- and education-matched control patients with a comparable stroke risk factor profile. Baseline stroke severity was comparable between groups (intervention: median NIHSS = 3; control: median NIHSS = 4; p = 0.604). Three months post-stroke, patients in the intervention group reported to be physically almost twice as active (13 ± 9 h/week) compared to controls (7 ± 5 h/week; p = 0.022). More intense app usage was strongly associated with higher physical activity (r = 0.60, p = 0.005) and lower consumption of unhealthy food (r = −0.51, p = 0.023). Smoking behavior (p = 0.001) and hypertension (p = 0.003) improved in all patients. Patients in the intervention group described better self-reported health-related quality of life three months post-stroke (p = 0.003).Conclusions: Specifically designed app interventions can be an easily to implement and cost-efficient approach to promote a healthier lifestyle in younger patients with a stroke.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jørgen Krohn ◽  
Kristoffer Våge Sundal ◽  
Torbjørn Frøystein

Abstract Background To characterise the topographical and clinical features of primary iris melanoma and to visualise the patterns of tumour extent in the iris. Methods Clinical characteristics of iris melanomas were analysed, and data on their size, shape, and location were converted into a database of two-dimensional iris charts by means of computer-drawing software. The geometric centre of each tumour was entered into corresponding sectors of the chart. The extent of the melanomas was computationally visualised by merging the iris drawings and displaying the number of overlapping tumours on colour-coded iris maps. Results Twenty-nine patients (18 females and 11 males) with a mean age of 52 years met the inclusion criteria. The mean largest tumour diameter was 6.1 mm (range, 1.8–11.0 mm). Five tumours (17%) involved the pupillary margin, 10 (34%) involved the iris root, and 10 (34%) involved both sites. The hemispheric location of the tumour centroid was superior in 3 eyes (11%) and inferior in 25 (89%) (p < 0.0001), and the distribution between the temporal and nasal hemispheres was 17 (61%) and 11 (39%), respectively (p = 0.26). In females, the iris melanomas were located more temporally (p  =  0.02) and had more often originated from a pre-existing naevus (p = 0.03), than in males. There was also shift towards more temporally located melanomas in younger patients. Conclusions The lower temporal iris quadrant is the preferential area of melanoma occurrence and growth. Iris melanoma tends to be more temporally located in females, who compared with males also have a higher proportion of melanomas arising from a pre-existing naevus.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
pp. 107327482110452
Wen-Chi Chou ◽  
Cheng-Chou Lai ◽  
Chia-Yen Hung ◽  
Shun-Wen Hsueh ◽  
Kun-Yun Yeh ◽  

Background Whether the prevalence of frailty and its clinical significance are relevant to treatment outcomes in younger (aged < 65 years) cancer patients remains uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of frailty on treatment outcomes in younger cancer patients with head and neck and esophageal malignancy. Material and methods This multicenter prospective study recruited 502 patients with locally advanced head and neck and esophageal cancer during 2016–2017 in Taiwan, aged 20–64 years who received curative-intent concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) as first-line antitumor treatment. Baseline frailty assessment using geriatric assessment (GA) was performed for each patient within 7 days before CCRT initiation. Results Frailty was observed in 169 (33.7%) of 502 middle-aged patients. Frail patients had significantly higher incidences of chemotherapy incompletion (16.6% versus 3.3%, P < .001) and radiotherapy incompletion (16.6% versus 3.6%, P < .001) than fit patients. During CCRT, frail patients had a significantly higher percentage of hospitalizations (42.0% versus 24.6%, P < .001) and a trend toward a higher percentage of emergency room visits (37.9% versus 30.0%, P = .08) than fit patients. Frail patients more likely had a significantly higher incidence of grade ≥ 3 adverse events than fit patients during CCRT. The 1-year survival rate was 68.7% and 85.2% (hazard ratio 2.56, 95% confidence interval 1.80–3.63, P < .001) for frail and fit patients, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrated the significance of pretreatment frailty on treatment tolerance, treatment-related toxicity, and survival outcome in younger patients with head and neck and esophageal cancer undergoing CCRT. While GA is commonly targeted toward the older population, frailty assessment by GA may also be utilized in younger patients for decision-making guidance and prognosis prediction.

Niels O.B. Thomsen ◽  
Anders Björkman

Abstract Background Treatment algorithm for disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) from the ulnar fovea includes direct TFCC repair, tendon reconstruction of the radioulnar ligaments, or a salvage procedure in cases with painful distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) degeneration. Case Description We describe our surgical technique for reconstruction of the distal oblique bundle (DOB), to attain DRUJ stability in a young man, after failed attempts of direct TFCC reinsertion and radioulnar ligament reconstruction with the Adams procedure. Literature Review Reconstruction of the central band of the interosseous membrane is well recognized for Essex-Lopresti injuries that demonstrate longitudinal forearm instability. The role for reconstruction/reinforcement of the DOB to restore DRUJ stability after TFCC injury has not gained the same recognition and needs further clarification. Clinical Relevance DOB reconstruction technique described is extra-articular and technically straightforward. We believe that the procedure could be considered for patients with an irreparable TFCC injury as a part of the treatment algorithm for younger patients, who otherwise would face a more extensive salvage procedure.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 161
Troels Gammeltoft Dolin ◽  
Ib Jarle Christensen ◽  
Astrid Zedlitz Johansen ◽  
Hans Jørgen Nielsen ◽  
Henrik Loft Jakobsen ◽  

The association between pre- and perioperative inflammatory biomarkers, major complications, and survival rates after resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) in older patients is largely unknown. The aim was to investigate age-dependent differences in these associations. Serum CRP, IL-6, and YKL-40 were measured preoperatively and on the first and second day after resection of CRC (stages I–III) in 210 older (≥70 years) and 191 younger patients (<70 years). The results from the complications was presented as an odds ratio (OR, with a 95% confidence interval (CI)) with logistic regression. Results from the mortality rates were presented as a hazard ratio (HR, with a 95% CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. The preoperative inflammatory biomarkers were higher in the older vs. the younger patients. The risk of complications was increased in older patients with a high preoperative CRP (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.03–1.53), IL-6 (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.18–2.08), and YKL-40 (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.20–2.28), but not in younger patients. Mortality was higher in younger patients with high preoperative YKL-40 (HR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.06–2.60). This was not found in older patients. Elevated preoperative inflammatory biomarkers among older patients were associated with an increased risk of complications, but not mortality. Preoperative inflammatory biomarkers may be useful in assessing the risk of a complicated surgical course in older patients with CRC.

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