Introduction: Vertical artifacts, including B lines, are frequently seen in a variety of lung diseases. Their sonomorphology varies in length, width, shape, and internal reverberations. The reason for this diversity is still unknown and is the cause of discussion between clinicians and ultrasound physics engineers. Aim: The aim of this work is to sum up the most common clinician observations and provide an explanation to each of them derived from ultrasound physics. Materials and Methods: Based on clinical and engineering experiences as well as data collected from relevant literature, the sonomorphology of vertical artifacts was analyzed. Thirteen questions and answers were prepared on the common sonomorphology of vertical artifacts, current nomenclature, and clinical observations. Conclusions: From a clinical standpoint, the analysis of vertical artifacts is very important and requires that further clinical studies be conducted in cooperation with engineers who specialize in physics.
AbstractInterstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) represent radiologic abnormalities incidentally detected on chest computed tomography (CT) examination, potentially related to interstitial lung diseases (ILD). Numerous studies have demonstrated that ILAs are associated with increased risk of progression toward pulmonary fibrosis and mortality. Some radiological patterns have been proven to be at a higher risk of progression. In this setting, the role of radiologists in reporting these interstitial abnormalities is critical. This review aims to discuss the most recent advancements in understanding this radiological entity and the open issues that still prevent the translation from theory to practice, emphasizing the importance of ILA recognition and adequately reporting in clinical practice.
AbstractCardiothoracic surgery usually causes tissue adhesion on the operation site which increases the risk of complications in the subsequent thoracic surgery including Nuss procedure. Disorders that require cardiothoracic surgery include chest wall deformities such as pectus excavatum, congenital heart diseases, lung diseases such as congenital cystic adenomatiod malformation and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Recently, we encountered a rare case of combined pectus excavatum and carinatum in a patient with a history of congenital esophageal atresia repair surgery. Commendably, despite tissue adhesion from the previous surgery, a modified Nuss procedure was performed successfully with no complications. We agree that the Nuss procedure is feasible for thoracic deformities in patients with a surgical history of cardiothoracic surgery.
To compare the lung CT volume (CTvol) and pulmonary function tests in an interstitial lung disease (ILD) population. Then to evaluate the CTvol loss between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and non-IPF and explore a prognostic value of annual CTvol loss in IPF.
We conducted in an expert center a retrospective study between 2005 and 2018 on consecutive patients with ILD. CTvol was measured automatically using commercial software based on a deep learning algorithm. In the first group, Spearman correlation coefficients (r) between forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), and CTvol were calculated. In a second group, annual CTvol loss was calculated using linear regression analysis and compared with the Mann–Whitney test. In a last group of IPF patients, annual CTvol loss was calculated between baseline and 1-year CTs for investigating with the Youden index a prognostic value of major adverse event at 3 years. Univariate and log-rank tests were calculated.
In total, 560 patients (4610 CTs) were analyzed. For 1171 CTs, CTvol was correlated with FVC (r: 0.86) and TLC (r: 0.84) (p < 0.0001). In 408 patients (3332 CT), median annual CTvol loss was 155.7 mL in IPF versus 50.7 mL in non-IPF (p < 0.0001) over 5.03 years. In 73 IPF patients, a relative annual CTvol loss of 7.9% was associated with major adverse events (log-rank, p < 0.0001) in univariate analysis (p < 0.001).
Automated lung CT volume may be an alternative or a complementary biomarker to pulmonary function tests for the assessment of lung volume loss in ILD.
• There is a good correlation between lung CT volume and forced vital capacity, as well as for with total lung capacity measurements (r of 0.86 and 0.84 respectively, p < 0.0001).
• Median annual CT volume loss is significantly higher in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis than in patients with other fibrotic interstitial lung diseases (155.7 versus 50.7 mL, p < 0.0001).
• In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a relative annual CT volume loss higher than 9.4% is associated with a significantly reduced mean survival time at 2.0 years versus 2.8 years (log-rank, p < 0.0001).
Pulmonary surfactant is critically important to prevent atelectasis by lowering the surface tension of the alveolar lining liquid. While respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is common in premature infants, severe RDS in term and late preterm infants suggests an underlying genetic etiology. Pathogenic variants in the genes encoding key components of pulmonary surfactant including surfactant protein B (SP-B, SFTPB gene), surfactant protein C (SP-C, SFTPC gene), and the ATP-Binding Cassette transporter A3 (ABCA3, ABCA3 gene) result in severe neonatal RDS or childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). These proteins play essential roles in pulmonary surfactant biogenesis and are expressed in alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEC2), the progenitor cell of the alveolar epithelium. SP-B deficiency most commonly presents in the neonatal period with severe RDS and requires lung transplantation for survival. SFTPC mutations act in an autosomal dominant fashion and more commonly presents with chILD or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis than neonatal RDS. ABCA3 deficiency often presents as neonatal RDS or chILD. Gene therapy is a promising option to treat monogenic lung diseases. Successes and challenges in developing gene therapies for genetic disorders of surfactant dysfunction include viral vector design and tropism for target cell types. In this review, we explore adeno-associated virus (AAV), lentiviral, and adenoviral (Ad)-based vectors as delivery vehicles. Both gene addition and gene editing strategies are compared to best design treatments for lung diseases resulting from pathogenic variants in the SFTPB, SFTPC, and ABCA3 genes.
Objective:Lung microbiota is increasingly implicated in multiple types of respiratory diseases. However, no study has drawn a consistent conclusion regarding the relationship between changes in the microbial community and lung diseases. This study verifies the association between microbiota level and lung diseases by performing a meta-analysis.Methods:Literature databases, including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Embase, Google Scholar, PMC, and CNKI, were used to collect related articles published before March 20, 2021. The standard mean deviation (SMD) and related 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analyses were also conducted.Results:Six studies, comprising 695 patients with lung diseases and 176 healthy individuals, were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that the microbiota level was higher in patients with lung diseases than in healthy individuals (SMD = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.22–0.55, I2 = 91.5%, P < 0.01). Subgroup analysis based on country demonstrated that the microbiota level was significantly higher in Chinese (SMD = 1.90, 95% CI = 0.87–2.93, I2 = 62.3%, P < 0.01) and Korean (SMD = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.13–0.35, I2 = 78.7%, P < 0.01) patients with lung diseases. The microbiota level of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (SMD = 1.40, 95% CI = 0.42–2.38, I2 = 97.3%, P = 0.005), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (SMD = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.09–0.50, I2 = 83.9%, P = 0.004), and asthma (SMD = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06–0.32, I2 = 69.4%, P = 0.004) were significantly higher than those of the healthy group, whereas a lower microbiota level was found in patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). The microbiota level significantly increased when the disease sample size was >50. Subgroup analysis based on different microbiota genera, indicated that Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were significantly increased in COPD and asthma diseases.Conclusion:We observed that patients with IPF, COPD, and asthma had a higher microbiota level, whereas patients with CHP had a lower microbiota level compared to the healthy individuals. The level of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa were significantly higher in patients with COPD and asthma, and thus represented as potential microbiota markers in the diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the most frequent pulmonary complications of autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), and it is mainly associated with connective tissue diseases (CTDs) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [...]
Background: the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) services, beyond research contexts, on patients with lung diseases other than COPD requires further study. Objectives: to (i) assess the impact of a publicly funded PR on patients’ exercise capacity, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and (ii) explore whether the effects vary across lung diseases. Methods: this retrospective pre–post study analyzed data from the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority PR program between 2016 and 2019. Results: 682 patients completed the full PR program. Pooled analyses found significant improvements in the patients’ exercise capacity (six-minute walk test (6MWT) (13.6%), fatigue (10.3%), and dyspnea (6.4%)), Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease 6-Item Scale (SEMCD6) (11.6%), and HRQoL (Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) (18.5%) and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) (10.9%)). The analyses conducted on sub-groups of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), other restrictive lung diseases (e.g., obesity, pleural effusion, etc.), lung cancer, and pulmonary hypertension (PH) indicated that, except for patients with PH, all the patients improved in the 6MWT. Fatigue decreased in patients with COPD, ILDs, and other restrictive lung diseases. Dyspnea decreased in patients with COPD, asthma, and lung cancer. SEMCD6 scores increased in COPD, ILDs and PH patients. CCQ scores decreased in all lung diseases, except lung cancer and PH. SGRQ scores only decreased in patients with COPD. Conclusion: PR services had a significant impact on patients with different lung diseases. Therefore, publicly funded PR should be available as a critical component in the management of patients with these diseases.