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TURBA ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 71-84

This article examines the practice of concert organization from an ethical perspective. By examining the field in relation to the notion of value, it explores the processes by which curators produce live acts, and the issues they face when they do so. The central argument traces a trajectory from the material to the immaterial aspects. The first part (Context and Value) shows how financial and cultural matters are embedded into live music production, and frames curatorship as the articulation of their co-dependent relations. The second part (Praxis) explores how music curators breathe value creation in their work context, by comparing interviews with the directors of Venice Biennale Musica, London Contemporary Music Festival, and No-Nation. The third part (Risk and Ethics) introduces risk-taking as a unit of value measurement, and points out the force of the curatorial in its power to confer value.


2031 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Author(s):  
Jose Barambones ◽  
Florian Richoux ◽  
Ricardo Imbert ◽  
Katsumi Inoue

Team formation (TF) faces the problem of defining teams of agents able to accomplish a set of tasks. Resilience on TF problems aims to provide robustness and adaptability to unforeseen events involving agent deletion. However, agents are unaware of the inherent social welfare in these teams. This article tackles the problem of how teams can minimise their effort in terms of organisation and communication considering these dynamics. Our main contribution is twofold: first, we introduce the Stabilisable Team Formation (STF) as a generalisation of current resilient TF model, where a team is stabilisable if it possesses and preserves its inter-agent organisation from a graph-based perspective. Second, our experiments show that stabilisability is able to reduce the exponential execution time in several units of magnitude with the most restrictive configurations, proving that communication effort in subsequent task allocation problems are relaxed compared with current resilient teams. To do so, we developed SBB-ST, a branch-and-bound algorithm based on Distributed Constrained Optimisation Problems (DCOP) to compute teams. Results evidence that STF improves their predecessors, extends the resilience to subsequent task allocation problems represented as DCOP, and evidence how Stabilisability contributes to resilient TF problems by anticipating decisions for saving resources and minimising the effort on team organisation in dynamic scenarios.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 194
Author(s):  
Fani Ntana ◽  
Sean R. Johnson ◽  
Björn Hamberger ◽  
Birgit Jensen ◽  
Hans J. L. Jørgensen ◽  
...  

Specialised metabolites produced during plant-fungal associations often define how symbiosis between the plant and the fungus proceeds. They also play a role in the establishment of additional interactions between the symbionts and other organisms present in the niche. However, specialised metabolism and its products are sometimes overlooked when studying plant-microbe interactions. This limits our understanding of the specific symbiotic associations and potentially future perspectives of their application in agriculture. In this study, we used the interaction between the root endophyte Serendipita indica and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants to explore how specialised metabolism of the host plant is regulated upon a mutualistic symbiotic association. To do so, tomato seedlings were inoculated with S. indica chlamydospores and subjected to RNAseq analysis. Gene expression of the main tomato specialised metabolism pathways was compared between roots and leaves of endophyte-colonised plants and tissues of endophyte-free plants. S. indica colonisation resulted in a strong transcriptional response in the leaves of colonised plants. Furthermore, the presence of the fungus in plant roots appears to induce expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of lignin-derived compounds, polyacetylenes, and specific terpenes in both roots and leaves, whereas pathways producing glycoalkaloids and flavonoids were expressed in lower or basal levels.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (POPL) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Author(s):  
Jacob Laurel ◽  
Rem Yang ◽  
Gagandeep Singh ◽  
Sasa Misailovic

We present a novel abstraction for bounding the Clarke Jacobian of a Lipschitz continuous, but not necessarily differentiable function over a local input region. To do so, we leverage a novel abstract domain built upon dual numbers, adapted to soundly over-approximate all first derivatives needed to compute the Clarke Jacobian. We formally prove that our novel forward-mode dual interval evaluation produces a sound, interval domain-based over-approximation of the true Clarke Jacobian for a given input region. Due to the generality of our formalism, we can compute and analyze interval Clarke Jacobians for a broader class of functions than previous works supported – specifically, arbitrary compositions of neural networks with Lipschitz, but non-differentiable perturbations. We implement our technique in a tool called DeepJ and evaluate it on multiple deep neural networks and non-differentiable input perturbations to showcase both the generality and scalability of our analysis. Concretely, we can obtain interval Clarke Jacobians to analyze Lipschitz robustness and local optimization landscapes of both fully-connected and convolutional neural networks for rotational, contrast variation, and haze perturbations, as well as their compositions.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Martin Benoît Azanguezet Quimatio ◽  
TSOGNONG FIDELE ◽  
Marcellin Julius Nkenlifack

Abstract Companies' information systems are regularly exposed to internal attacks perpetrated by users who have been granted access to the system. Discretionary, mandatory, role-based and organization-based access control models do not guarantee optimal protection against these attacks because these models trust in users. Therefore, they are unable to protect the system against attacks carried out by authenticated users, especially the super user who can carry out any type of internal attack on information system's data. The objective of this paper is to propose a model that excludes any trust in users. To do so, our model extends the OrBAC (Organization Based Access Control) model by integrating two concepts: the organizational hierarchy and the redundant authentication. The model thus implemented offers a hierarchical and redundant access control to data and processing in an information system based on zero trust in users.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qi Yang ◽  
Mohsen Mosleh ◽  
David Gertler Rand ◽  
Tauhid Zaman

Many social media users try to obtain as many followers as possible in a social network to gain influence, a challenge that is often referred to as the follow back problem. In this work we study different strategies for this problem in the context of politically polarized social networks and study how political partisanship affect social media users' propensity to follow each other. We test how contact strategy (liking, following) interacts with partisan alignment when trying to induce users to follow back. To do so, we conduct a field experiment on Twitter where we target N=8,104 active users using bot accounts that present as human. We found that users were more than twice as likely to reciprocally follow back bots whose partisanship matched their own. Conversely, when the only form of contact between the bot and the user was the bot liking the user’s posts, the follow rate was extremely low regardless of partisan alignment – and liking a user’s content and following them led to no increase in follow-back relative to just following the user. Finally, we found no partisanship asymmetries, such that Democrats and Republicans preferentially followed co-partisans to the same extent. Our results demonstrate the important impact of following users and having shared partisanship – and the irrelevance of liking users’ content – on solving the follow back problem.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Martin Benoît Azanguezet Quimatio ◽  
TSOGNONG FIDELE ◽  
Marcellin Julius Nkenlifack

Abstract Companies' information systems are regularly exposed to internal attacks perpetrated by users who have been granted access to the system. Discretionary, mandatory, role-based and organization-based access control models do not guarantee optimal protection against these attacks because these models trust in users. Therefore, they are unable to protect the system against attacks carried out by authenticated users, especially the super user who can carry out any type of internal attack on information system's data. The objective of this paper is to propose a model that excludes any trust in users. To do so, our model extends the OrBAC (Organization Based Access Control) model by integrating two concepts: the organizational hierarchy and the redundant authentication. The model thus implemented offers a hierarchical and redundant access control to data and processing in an information system based on zero trust in users.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Author(s):  
Younsung Kim

Abstract Firms with well-formulated competitive market strategies could still fail due to their lack of effective nonmarket strategy. Climate change poses significant threats to firms and presents firms’ need to develop nonmarket strategy integrated with market strategy. Relying on the unique dataset of US S&P 500 firms’ responses to climate change, this study seeks to ask why some firms attempt to engage in climate policy making, while others do not do so. The results found that firms with organizational resources and capabilities underlying their carbon market strategy are more likely to support mandatory climate policy. It sheds light on the significance of integrated market and nonmarket strategies, particularly when business opportunities are controlled more by governments than by markets.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-25
Author(s):  
Simon F. Haeder ◽  
Susan Webb Yackee

Abstract When does legislation trigger regulation? The US Congress regularly passes laws that authorise government agencies to write legally binding regulations. Yet, when this occurs, agencies may take years to act – or, at times – may never act at all. We theorise that the breadth of the congressional statutory delegation drives the timing of agency policy production. In particular, when Congress expressly tells an agency to promulgate a rule, we expect agencies to do so quickly. Yet, when Congress provides greater policymaking discretion to agencies, we expect other factors – and especially, internal agency considerations – to drive regulatory timing. We use data from almost 350 statutes spanning four decades, which are then matched up with thousands of regulations, to assess the argument. Using innovative methods, we find support for our hypotheses. Overall, we produce a deeper understanding of the link between delegation and discretion: suggesting when it occurs, as well as, importantly, why.


Author(s):  
David Sabey

This paper draws on Bakhtin’s ethico-ontological vision of dialogue to theorize “relational becoming” on a micro-level. To do so, it introduces three “ethical dimensions of dialogue” (responsibility, responsiveness, and capacitation) and develops the interrelated concepts of addressability and presencing as analytical lenses. Drawing on transcript data from a series of high school and college students’ discussions about controversial political issues, the analysis examines how interlocutors made themselves addressable, addressed each other, and were “presenced” in dialogue. It also discusses the ethico-ontological potential of these interactions, identifying a problematic tendency among interlocutors to not “show up” in verbal discourse in a variety of ways, including, in particular, reliance on abstractions.


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