Background: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by tandem intracranial and extracranial occlusions is not rare. However, optimal strategy between antegrade (extracranial first) or retrograde (intracranial first) approaches still remains elusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to compare the two approaches to provide updated clinical evidence of strategy selection.Methods: PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for literature comparing antegrade and retrograde approaches for patients with AIS with concomitant tandem occlusions. Outcomes including successful reperfusion [Throbolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) 2b−3] and 90-day favorable outcome [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0–2], any intracerebral hemorrhage, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, procedural complications, and mortality were evaluated. The risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale and illustrated in the Funnel plot. Heterogeneity was assessed by I2 statistic. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were also performed.Results: A total of 11 studies accounting 1,517 patients were included. 831 (55%) patients were treated with an antegrade approach and 686 (45%) patients were treated with the retrograde approach. A higher successful reperfusion rate was achieved in retrograde group than that of antegrade group [83.8 vs. 78.0%; odds ratio (OR): 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40–0.99, p = 0.04]. 90-day favorable outcome (mRS 0–2 at 90 days) also showed significantly higher in retrograde group compared with antegrade group (47.3 vs. 40.2%; OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58–0.89, p = 0.002). The incidence of any intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, 90-day mortality, and other complications did not differ between two groups.Conclusion: In AIS with tandem occlusions, the retrograde approach might achieve a higher successful reperfusion rate and better functional outcome with a comparable safety profile when compared with an antegrade approach. Further prospective controlled studies with more meticulous design and a higher level of evidence are needed to confirm these results.Systematic Review Registration: “PROSPERO” database (CRD 42020199093), https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/.
BackgroundMechanical thrombectomy (MT) is a primary endovascular modality for acute intracranial large vessel occlusion. However, further treatment, such as rescue stenting, is occasionally necessary for refractory cases. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of rescue stenting in first-line MT failure and to identify the clinical factors affecting its clinical outcome.MethodsA multicenter prospective registry was designed for this study. We enrolled consecutive patients who underwent rescue stenting for first-line MT failure. Endovascular details and outcomes, follow-up patency of the stented artery, and clinical outcomes were summarized and compared between the favorable and unfavorable outcome groups.ResultsA total of 78 patients were included. Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis was the most common etiology for rescue stenting (97.4%). Seventy-seven patients (98.7%) were successfully recanalized by rescue stenting. A favorable outcome was observed in 66.7% of patients. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and mortality were observed in 5.1% and 4.0% of patients, respectively. The stented artery was patent in 82.1% of patients on follow-up angiography. In a multivariable analysis, a patent stent on follow-up angiography was an independent factor for a favorable outcome (OR 87.6; 95% CI 4.77 to 1608.9; p=0.003). Postprocedural intravenous maintenance of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor was significantly associated with the follow-up patency of the stented artery (OR 5.72; 95% CI 1.45 to 22.6; p=0.013).ConclusionsIn this multicenter prospective registry, rescue stenting for first-line MT failure was effective and safe. For a favorable outcome, follow-up patency of the stented artery was important, which was significantly associated with postprocedural maintenance of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors.
AbstractCerebral reperfusion injury is the major complication of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Contrast extravasation (CE) and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) are the key radiographical features of cerebral reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to investigate CE and ICH after MT in the anterior and posterior circulation, and their effect on functional outcome. This is a retrospective study of all consecutive patients who were treated with MT for AIS at University of California Irvine Medical Center between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2017. Patient characteristics, clinical features, procedural variables, contrast extravasation, ICH, and outcomes after MT were analyzed. A total of 131 patients with anterior circulation (AC) stroke and 25 patients with posterior circulation (PC) stroke underwent MT during the study period. There was no statistically significant difference in admission NIHSS score, blood pressure, rate of receiving intravenous tPA, procedural variables, contrast extravasation, and symptomatic ICH between the 2 groups. Patients with PC stroke had a similar rate of favorable outcome (mRS 0–2) but significantly higher mortality (40.0% vs. 10.7%, p < 0.01) than patients with AC stroke. Multivariate regression analysis identified initial NIHSS score (OR 1.1, CI 1.0–1.2, p = 0.01), number of passes with stent retriever (OR 2.1, CI 1.3–3.6, p < 0.01), and PC stroke (OR 9.3, CI 2.5–35.1, p < 0.01) as independent risk factors for death. There was no significant difference in functional outcomes between patients with and without evidence of cerebral reperfusion injury after MT. We demonstrated that AC and PC stroke had similar rates of cerebral reperfusion injury and favorable outcome after MT. Cerebral reperfusion injury is not a significant independent risk factor for poor functional outcome.
BackgroundNovel thrombectomy strategies emanate expeditiously day-by-day counting on access system, clot retriever device, proximity to and integration with the thrombus, and microcatheter disengagement. Nonetheless, the relationship between native thrombectomy strategies and revascularization success remains to be evaluated in basilar artery occlusion (BAO).PurposeTo compare the safety and efficacy profile of key frontline thrombectomy strategies in BAO.MethodsRetrospective analyses of prospectively maintained stroke registries at two comprehensive stroke centers were performed between January 2015 and December 2019. Patients with BAO selected after MR imaging were categorized into three groups based on the frontline thrombectomy strategy (contact aspiration (CA), stent retriever (SR), or combined (SR+CA)). Patients who experienced failure of clot retrieval followed by an interchanging strategy were categorized as a fourth (switch) group. Clinicoradiological features and procedural variables were compared. The primary outcome measure was the rate of complete revascularization (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) grade 2c–3). Favorable outcome was defined as a 90 day modified Rankin Scale score of 0–2.ResultsOf 1823 patients, we included 128 (33 underwent CA, 35 SR, 35 SR +CA, and 25 switch techniques). Complete revascularization was achieved in 83/140 (59%) primarily analyzed patients. SR +CA was associated with higher odds of complete revascularization (adjusted OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.077 to 8.593, p=0.04) which was an independent predictor of favorable outcome (adjusted OR 2.73. 95% CI 1.152 to 6.458, p=0.02). No significant differences were observed for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, functional outcome, or mortality rate.ConclusionAmong BAO patients, the combined technique effectively contributed to complete revascularization that showed a 90 day favorable outcome with an equivalent complication rate after thrombectomy.
Extended thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (eTICI) 2c/3 reperfusion after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is associated with better stroke outcomes than eTICI 2b. Whether additional MT attempt after achieving eTICI 2b (beyond 2b attempt) leads to better outcomes is unknown.
Consecutive patients with acute anterior circulation stroke who achieved eTICI 2b during MT were divided into 2 groups: those who further tried MT (beyond‐2b group) and those without (nonbeyond‐2b group). The patients who directly achieved eTICI 2c/3 without experiencing 2b (direct‐2c/3 group) were also studied. The outcomes included the reperfusion status, favorable outcome (3‐month modified Rankin scale score of 0–2), neurological improvement (a ≥10‐point decrease of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score from baseline or the score of 0) at 24 hours and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage.
Of 308 patients, 50 were in the beyond‐2b group, 87 in the nonbeyond‐2b group, and the remaining 171 in the direct‐2c/3 group. Perfusion of middle cerebral artery branches supplying the primary motor cortex was worse in the beyond‐2b than the nonbeyond‐2b group at the time of eTICI 2b (
=0.007). Favorable outcome was similarly common (48% for each,
=0.40). Neurological improvement was more frequent (52% versus 37%;
=0.04) and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage tended to be more common (6% versus 1%,
=0.11) in the beyond‐2b than the nonbeyond‐2b group. Eighteen patients (36%) in the beyond‐2b group finally achieved eTICI 2c/3; 10 of these (56%) and 14 of the remaining 32 (44%) had favorable outcome (
=0.83). The former rate was similar to that in the direct‐2c/3 group (58%;
Patients undergoing additional MT attempt after achieving eTICI 2b had numerically but not significantly more symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and showed a similar level of functional outcome at 3 months than those who did not. When eTICI 2c/3 was finally achieved by additional attempts, functional outcome was similar with that of patients who directly achieved eTICI 2c/3 without experiencing 2b.
Clinical Trial Registration Information
. Unique identifier: NCT02251665.
Objective: To identify predictive factors for favorable outcomes after surgical treatments that were performed by beginner urologists in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), we retrospectively evaluated outcomes after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) that were performed by two young urologists.Methods: Of 80 patients who were treated with HoLEP or TURP, 31 (HoLEP) and 36 (TURP) patients who were followed up for 3 months were enrolled in this study. Preoperative and perioperative variables were evaluated to identify predictive factors for favorable outcome after surgical treatment for BPH.Results: At 3 months postoperative after HoLEP or TURP, the median decrease in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was 13.0. Patients whose IPSS decreased by over 13 points were categorized into a favorable response group after HoLEP or TURP. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of favorable outcomes at 3 months after HoLEP or TURP, and the preoperative IPSS was identified as an independent predictor for favorable outcomes.Conclusion: When young urologists plan to perform surgical treatment for BPH, they should consider that the severity of symptoms is the most important factor for favorable outcomes. The type of surgical modality for managing BPH is less important.