vessel occlusion
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Sriharsha Voleti ◽  
Yasmin N Aziz ◽  
Johnathan Vidovich ◽  
Brendan Corcoran ◽  
Bin Zhang ◽  

BMC Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Xiaoke Wu ◽  
Yutian Zou ◽  
Shoujiang You ◽  
Yanlin Zhang

Abstract Background The risk factors for ischemic stroke in young people are complex, varied and closely related to prognosis. This study aims to analyze the risk factors for ischemic stroke in Chinese young people and to explore the main factors influencing the prognosis. Method A total of 444 patients aged 16 to 45 years with ischemic stroke admitted to Suzhou tertiary hospital from 2011 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Risk factors were identified according to the IPSS definition of pediatric stroke and the TOAST classification. All patients were followed up, and the modified Rankin score was used to evaluate the prognosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the influencing factors of poor prognosis. Results Among the patients, 12 risk factors were found according to the IPSS definition of pediatric stroke, and 5 types of stroke were found according to the TOAST classification. A total of 299 patients had a good prognosis. Anemia, venous sinus thrombosis, isolated large-vessel occlusion, and high baseline NIHSS score were significant risk factors. Conclusion The IPSS definition enables patients to be classified on the basis of more risk factors than other classification methods. The prognosis of ischemic stroke in young people is generally good in the 5 years following the event. Anemia, venous sinus thrombosis, isolated large-vessel occlusion and high baseline NIHSS score were associated with poor prognosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gauthier Duloquin ◽  
Valentin Crespy ◽  
Pauline Jakubina ◽  
Maurice Giroud ◽  
Catherine Vergely ◽  

Introduction:Strategy for the acute management of minor ischemic stroke (IS) with large vessel occlusion (LVO) is under debate, especially the benefits of mechanical thrombectomy. The frequency of minor IS with LVO among overall patients is not well established. This study aimed to assess the proportion of minor IS and to depict characteristics of patients according to the presence of LVO in a comprehensive population-based setting.Methods:Patients with acute IS were prospectively identified among residents of Dijon, France, using a population-based registry (2013–2017). All arterial imaging exams were reviewed to assess arterial occlusion. Minor stroke was defined as that with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of <6. Proportion of patients with LVO was estimated in the minor IS population. The clinical presentation of patients was compared according to the presence of an LVO.Results:Nine hundred seventy-one patients were registered, including 582 (59.9%) patients with a minor IS. Of these patients, 23 (4.0%) had a LVO. Patients with minor IS and LVO had more severe presentation [median 3 (IQR 2–5) vs. 2 (IQR 1–3), p = 0.001] with decreased consciousness (13.0 vs. 1.6%, p<0.001) and cortical signs (56.5 vs. 30.8%, p = 0.009), especially aphasia (34.8 vs. 15.4%, p = 0.013) and altered item level of consciousness (LOC) questions (26.1 vs. 11.6%, p = 0.037). In multivariable analyses, only NIHSS score (OR = 1.45 per point; 95% CI: 1.11–1.91, p = 0.007) was associated with proximal LVO in patients with minor IS.Conclusion:Large vessel occlusion (LVO) in minor stroke is non-exceptional, and our findings highlight the need for emergency arterial imaging in any patients suspected of acute stroke, including those with minor symptoms because of the absence of obvious predictors of proximal LVO.

2022 ◽  
pp. neurintsurg-2021-018292
Dapeng Sun ◽  
Baixue Jia ◽  
Xu Tong ◽  
Peter Kan ◽  
Xiaochuan Huo ◽  

BackgroundParenchymal hemorrhage (PH) is a troublesome complication after endovascular treatment (EVT).ObjectiveTo investigate the incidence, independent predictors, and clinical impact of PH after EVT in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to anterior circulation large vessel occlusion (LVO).MethodsSubjects were selected from the ANGEL-ACT Registry. PH was diagnosed according to the European Collaborative Acute Stroke Study classification. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent predictors of PH, as well as the association between PH and 90-day functional outcome assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score.ResultsOf the 1227 enrolled patients, 147 (12.0%) were diagnosed with PH within 12–36 hours after EVT. On multivariable analysis, low admission Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS)(adjusted OR (aOR)=1.13, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.26, p=0.020), serum glucose >7 mmol/L (aOR=1.82, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.84, p=0.009), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; aOR=1.05, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.09, p=0.005) were associated with a high risk of PH, while underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS; aOR=0.42, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.81, p=0.009) and intracranial angioplasty/stenting (aOR=0.37, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.93, p=0.035) were associated with a low risk of PH. Furthermore, patients with PH were associated with a shift towards to worse functional outcome (mRS score 4 vs 3, adjusted common OR (acOR)=2.27, 95% CI 1.53 to 3.38, p<0.001).ConclusionsIn Chinese patients with AIS caused by anterior circulation LVO, the risk of PH was positively associated with low admission ASPECTS, serum glucose >7 mmol/L, and NLR, but negatively related to underlying ICAS and intracranial angioplasty/stenting.Trial registration numberNCT03370939.

2022 ◽  
pp. neurintsurg-2021-018375
Mihir Khunte ◽  
Xiao Wu ◽  
Andrew Koo ◽  
Seyedmehdi Payabvash ◽  
Charles Matouk ◽  

BackgroundTo evaluate the cost-effectiveness of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) to treat large vessel occlusion (LVO) in patients with acute, minor stroke (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) <6) and impact of occlusion site.MethodsA Markov decision-analytic model was constructed accounting for both costs and outcomes from a societal perspective. Two different management strategies were evaluated: EVT and medical management. Base case analysis was done for three different sites of occlusion: proximal M1, distal M1 and M2 occlusions. One-way, two-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.ResultsBase-case calculation showed EVT to be the dominant strategy in 65-year-old patients with proximal M1 occlusion and NIHSS <6, with lower cost (US$37 229 per patient) and higher effectiveness (1.47 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)), equivalent to 537 days in perfect health or 603 days in modified Rankin score (mRS) 0–2 health state. EVT is the cost-effective strategy in 92.7% of iterations for patients with proximal M1 occlusion using a willingness-to-pay threshold of US$100 000/QALY. EVT was cost-effective if it had better outcomes in 2%–3% more patients than intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in absolute numbers (base case difference −16%). EVT was cost-effective when the proportion of M2 occlusions was less than 37.1%.ConclusionsEVT is cost-effective in patients with minor stroke and LVO in the long term (lifetime horizon), considering the poor outcomes and significant disability associated with non-reperfusion. Our study emphasizes the need for caution in interpreting previous observational studies which concluded similar results in EVT versus medical management in patients with minor stroke due to a high proportion of patients with M2 occlusions in the two strategies.

2022 ◽  
pp. neurintsurg-2021-018308
Jang-Hyun Baek ◽  
Byung Moon Kim ◽  
Eun Hyun Ihm ◽  
Chang-Hyun Kim ◽  
Dong Joon Kim ◽  

BackgroundMechanical thrombectomy (MT) is a primary endovascular modality for acute intracranial large vessel occlusion. However, further treatment, such as rescue stenting, is occasionally necessary for refractory cases. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of rescue stenting in first-line MT failure and to identify the clinical factors affecting its clinical outcome.MethodsA multicenter prospective registry was designed for this study. We enrolled consecutive patients who underwent rescue stenting for first-line MT failure. Endovascular details and outcomes, follow-up patency of the stented artery, and clinical outcomes were summarized and compared between the favorable and unfavorable outcome groups.ResultsA total of 78 patients were included. Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis was the most common etiology for rescue stenting (97.4%). Seventy-seven patients (98.7%) were successfully recanalized by rescue stenting. A favorable outcome was observed in 66.7% of patients. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and mortality were observed in 5.1% and 4.0% of patients, respectively. The stented artery was patent in 82.1% of patients on follow-up angiography. In a multivariable analysis, a patent stent on follow-up angiography was an independent factor for a favorable outcome (OR 87.6; 95% CI 4.77 to 1608.9; p=0.003). Postprocedural intravenous maintenance of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor was significantly associated with the follow-up patency of the stented artery (OR 5.72; 95% CI 1.45 to 22.6; p=0.013).ConclusionsIn this multicenter prospective registry, rescue stenting for first-line MT failure was effective and safe. For a favorable outcome, follow-up patency of the stented artery was important, which was significantly associated with postprocedural maintenance of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors.

Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000013302
Vignan Yogendrakumar ◽  
Leonid Churilov ◽  
Peter J Mitchell ◽  
Timothy J Kleinig ◽  
Nawaf Yassi ◽  

Background and Objectives:Detailed study of tenecteplase (TNK) in patients greater than 80 years of age is limited. The objective of our study was to assess the safety and efficacy of TNK at 0.25 and 0.40 mg/kg doses in patients greater than 80 years with large vessel occlusion.Methods:A pooled analysis of the EXTEND-IA TNK randomized controlled trials (n=502). Patients were adults presenting with ischemic stroke due to occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid, middle cerebral, or basilar artery presenting within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. We compared the treatment effect of TNK 0.25mg/kg, TNK 0.40mg/kg, and alteplase 0.90mg/kg, stratifying for patient age (>80 years). Outcomes evaluated include 90-day modified Rankin scale (mRS), all-cause mortality, and symptomatic ICH. Treatment effect was adjusted for baseline NIHSS, age, and time from symptom onset to puncture via mixed effects proportional odds and logistic regression models.Results:In patients >80 years (n=137), TNK 0.25 mg/kg was associated with improved 90-day mRS (median 3 vs. 4, adjusted common OR=2.70, 95% CI: 1.23-5.94) and reduced mortality (aOR=0.34, 95% CI: 0.13-0.91) versus 0.40 mg/kg. TNK 0.25 mg/kg was associated with improved 90-day mRS (median 3 vs. 4, acOR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.03-5.05) versus alteplase. No difference in 90-day mRS or mortality was detected between alteplase and TNK 0.40 mg/kg. Symptomatic ICH was observed in 4 patients treated with TNK 0.40 mg/kg, one patient treated with alteplase and zero patients treated with TNK 0.25 mg/kg. In patients ≤ 80 years, no differences in 90-day mRS, mortality, or symptomatic ICH was observed between TNK 0.25 mg/kg, alteplase, and TNK 0.40 mg/kg.Conclusions:TNK 0.25 mg/kg was associated with improved 90-day mRS and lower mortality in patients greater than 80 years of age. No differences between the doses were observed in younger patients.Classification of Evidence:This study provides Class II evidence that tenecteplase 0.25 mg/kg given before endovascular therapy in patients >80 years old with large vessel occlusion stroke is associated with better functional outcomes at 90 days and reduced mortality when compared to tenecteplase 0.40 mg/kg or alteplase 0.90 mg/kg.Trial Identifiers: NCT02388061, NCT03340493

2022 ◽  
pp. neurintsurg-2021-018275
Pengfei Xing ◽  
Xiaoxi Zhang ◽  
Hongjian Shen ◽  
Fang Shen ◽  
Lei Zhang ◽  

BackgroundStroke etiology might influence the clinical outcomes in patients with large vessel occlusion receiving endovascular treatment (EVT) with or without thrombolysis.ObjectiveTo examine whether stroke etiology resulted in different efficacy and safety in patients treated with EVT-alone or EVT preceded by intravenous alteplase (combined therapy).MethodsWe assessed the efficacy and safety of treatment strategy based on prespecified stroke etiology, cardioembolism (CE), large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA), and undetermined cause (UC) for patients enrolled in the DIRECT-MT trial. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 90 days. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the adjusted common OR for a shift of better mRS score for EVT-alone versus combined therapy. A term was entered to test for interaction.ResultsIn this study, 656 patients were grouped into three prespecified stroke etiologic subgroups. The adjusted common ORs for improvement in the 90-day ordinal mRS score with EVT-alone were 1.2 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.8) for CE, 1.6 (95% CI 0.8 to 3.3) for LAA, and 0.8 (95% CI 0.5 to 1.3) for UC. Compared with CE, EVT-alone was more likely to result in an mRS score of 0–1 (pinteraction=0.047) and extended Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction ≥2b (pinteraction=0.041) in the LAA group. The differences in mortality and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 90 days were not significant between the subgroups (p>0.05).ConclusionsThe results did not support the hypothesis that a specific treatment strategy based on stroke etiology should be used for patients with large vessel occlusion (NCT03469206).

Uday Bhanu Kovilapu ◽  
Narendra Jain ◽  
Atul Mishra ◽  
Virender Malik

Abstract Background: The data pertaining to selecting an optimal first-line strategy (stent retriever [SR] vs. contact aspiration [CA]) based on noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) in cases of acute ischemic stroke consequent to large vessel occlusion (LVO) is lacking. Aims: This article studies the influence of hyperdense vessel sign (HVS) in selecting optimal first-line strategy, with intention of increasing first-pass recanalization (FPR). Methods: Upfront approach at our center is SR technique with rescue therapy (CA) adoption consequent to three failed SR attempts to achieve successful recanalization. Data of patients with acute LVO who underwent mechanical thrombectomy from June 2017 to May 2020 was retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified into HVS (+) and HVS (–) cohort. Rate of successful recanalization (first pass, early, and final) and efficacy of rescue therapy was assessed between the two cohorts. Results: Of 52 patients included, 28 and 24 were assigned to the HVS (+) and HVS (–) cohort, respectively. FPR was observed in 50% of HVS (+) and 20.9% of HVS (–) (p = 0.029). Early recanalization was documented in 64.2% of HVS (+) and 37.5% of HVS (–) (p = 0.054). Rescue therapy need was higher in patients not demonstrating HVS (p = 0.062). Successful recanalization was achieved with rescue therapy in 50% of HVS (–) group. Conclusion: A higher FPR is achievable following individualized first-pass strategy (based on NCCT appearance of clot), instead of a generalized SR first-pass approach. This CT imaging-based strategy is a step closer to achieving primary angiographic goal of FPR.

2022 ◽  
Zequn Li

Abstract Background Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (SICH) is a severe and deadly complication in patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) who receive endovascular treatment (EVT). Recent studies have indicated that many risk factors, including pretreatment scores and the operation process, may be associated with the occurrence of SICH after thrombectomy. This study aims to identify independent risk factors and establish a novel nomogram-based model for patients with anterior LVO to predict the occurrence of SICH after direct thrombectomy or bridge therapy (thrombectomy based on intravenous thrombolysis). Methods Patients with acute ischaemic stroke after EVT to recanalize the blocked artery in anterior circulation were consecutively recruited from November 2017 to March 2019. Baseline information was collected from each patient. These data were subsequently analysed by R Project for Statistical Computing. Results A total of 127 patients with complete data were classified into the training set, among whom 37 patients (29.1%) fulfilled the criteria for SICH. The results of the multivariate analyses showed that NIHSS (P=0.024), ASPECT (P<0.001) and ASITN (P=0.017) scores were independently associated with the occurrence of SICH after thrombectomy. Ultimately, three independent pretreatment predictors were included in the NIHSS/ASPECT/ASITN (NAA) prediction model, and the receiver operating characteristic analysis results showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.845 (95% CI=0.763–0.928). The calibration plots showed that the actual observations were consistent with the measured and predicted results of the nomogram. Conclusions In this study, a novel model based on NAA for predicting the occurrence of SICH after thrombectomy in patients with anterior LVO was established and validated internally. The results suggest that this model can help improve perioperative evaluations and individualized treatment strategies.

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