environmental measures
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2022 ◽  
Vol 66 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sophie Bucher Della Torre ◽  
Clémence Moullet ◽  
Corinne Jotterand Chaparro

Objectives: Implementing public health measures is necessary to decrease sugars intake, which is associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases. Our scoping review aimed to identify the types of measures implemented and evaluated to decrease sugars intake in the population and to assess their impact.Methods: Following a review of systematic reviews (SRs) published in 2018, we systematically searched new SR (May 2017–October 2020) in electronic databases. We also searched the measures implemented in Europe in the NOURISHING database. Two researchers selected the reviews, extracted and analysed the data.Results: We included 15 SRs assessing economic tools (n = 5), product reformulation and labels/claims (n = 5), and educational/environmental interventions (n = 7). Economic tools, product reformulation and environmental measures were effective to reduce sugar intake or weight outcomes, while labels, education and interventions combining educational and environmental measures found mixed effects. The most frequently implemented measures in Europe were public awareness, nutritional education, and labels.Conclusion: Among measures to reduce sugar intake in the population, economic tools, product reformulation, and environmental interventions were the most effective, but not the more frequently implemented in Europe.


Author(s):  
M. S. Ivanitskiy

THE PURPOSE. The necessity of establishing emission standards for highly toxic substances with carcinogenic properties in the context of the implementation of new principles of state regulation of environmental protection activities at energy enterprises is substantiated and confirmed. The analysis of the features of the formation and burnout of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the flue gases of boilers during the combustion of coals in lowtemperature conditions of the furnace process is carried out. Based on the analysis, the total and partial indicators of the harmfulness of flue gases were calculated in order to assess and predict the overall toxicity of coal combustion products, taking into account the contribution of carcinogenic substances.METHODS. When calculating the overall toxicity of flue gases, a systematic analysis and generalization of experimental data on the content of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the combustion products of low-power boilers was applied.RESULTS. As a result of the performed study, the contribution of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons to the overall toxicity of boiler flue gases during the combustion of Azeysky, Mugunsky, Cheremkhovsky and Tugnuy coal was determined. It is shown that substances such as benz(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and phenanthrene significantly affect the level of the total indicator of the harmfulness of combustion products from 38.8 to 53.6%.CONCLUSION. The obtained research results can be applied at energy enterprises at the stage of substantiating the introduction of regime-technological and environmental measures in order to develop measures to improve environmental efficiency through technological rationing of carcinogenic emissions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 21-28
Author(s):  
Alla Zvyaginceva ◽  
Svetlana Sazonova ◽  
Igor' Panteleev

A detailed narrowly focused survey was carried out on one of the three zones of the technological infrastructure of a specialized facility - a hangar for aircraft (LA). A general list of pollutants (SV) released into the atmosphere at the 2nd site - the hangar of a special facility was established. Generators – installations and constructs of polluting components on a specific area of stationary and mobile type, which operate at a special facility, are fixed in the selected sectors. In accordance with the nature of the released components and the nature of the emission source (stationary or mobile type), the 2nd site is divided into 4 sectors. The measurement by sectors was implemented and the concentration of emissions was calculated according to the recommended regulatory acts of the Russian Federation. Indications of the concentration of a number of substances above the regulated MPC for 2 sectors of the 2nd site for the energy and test site of the special facility have been established. In connection with the recorded results, techniques and procedures of organizational and technical regulations that contribute to minimizing the accumulation of pollutants (gases) of functioning aircraft engines are analyzed and recommended. A method of attenuation of near-Earth smoke at an interval of up to two meters from the surface where aircraft engines operate is proposed based on the analysis of environmental measures at specialized facilities. The method is based on a variation in the orientation of the outflow of gas flows from functioning aircraft engines during launch, taxiing, takeoff, landing, and passage of an aircraft (VS) along the airfield track.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Brendan Fries ◽  
Benjamin J. K. Davis ◽  
Anne E. Corrigan ◽  
Angelo DePaola ◽  
Frank C. Curriero

The Pacific Northwest (PNW) is one of the largest commercial harvesting areas for Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in the United States. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a bacterium naturally present in estuarine waters, accumulates in shellfish and is a major cause of seafood-borne illness. Growers, consumers, and public-health officials have raised concerns about rising vibriosis cases in the region. V. parahaemolyticus genetic markers (tlh, tdh, trh) were estimated using an MPN-PCR technique in Washington State Pacific oysters regularly sampled between May and October from 2005 to 2019 (N=2,836); environmental conditions were also measured at each sampling event. Multilevel mixed-effects regression models were used to assess relationships between environmental measures and genetic markers as well as genetic marker ratios (trh:tlh, tdh:tlh, and tdh:trh), accounting for variation across space and time. Spatial and temporal dependence were also accounted for in the model structure. Model fit improved when including environmental measures from previous weeks (1-week lag for air temperature, 3-week lag for salinity). Positive associations were found between tlh and surface water temperature, specifically between 15°C and 26°C, and between trh and surface water temperature up to 26°C. tlh and trh were negatively associated with 3-week lagged salinity in the most saline waters (> 27 ppt). There was also a positive relationship between tissue temperature and tdh, but only above 20°C. The tdh:tlh ratio displayed analogous inverted non-linear relationships as tlh. The non-linear associations found between the genetic targets and environmental measures demonstrate the complex habitat suitability of V. parahaemolyticus. Additional associations with both spatial and temporal variables also suggest there are influential unmeasured environmental conditions that could further explain bacterium variability. Overall, these findings confirm previous ecological risk factors for vibriosis in Washington State, while also identifying new associations between lagged temporal effects and pathogenic markers of V. parahaemolyticus.


Author(s):  
Viktoriia Nekhai ◽  
Svetlana Nesterenko ◽  
Oksana Marchenko ◽  
Svetlana Suprunenko ◽  
Tеtіana Khrystova

The objective of this work is to define and base the principles of environmental management through the introduction of regenerative (restorative) and productive methods of environmental policy. The problems were solved with the help of such general and special research methods, such as generalization, systematization, analysis, synthesis, and the empirical method. It is argued that the operation of industrial enterprises without a balanced set of appropriate environmental measures always has negative consequences. The formation of environmental awareness of entrepreneurs, assigning to environmental management the status of a mandatory component of the policy to achieve regional environmental objectives, requires greater attention and effective methodological developments. The strategic directions of ecological development of one of the regions of Ukraine are indicated. The essence of the concept of "environmental management" is defined. The definition of "regenerative method of ecological management" and "productive method of ecological management" is offered. In conclusion, scientific ideas on the feasibility of implementing environmental management in companies are presented. The need for ecological measures for the implementation of ecological policy is based.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 238-250
Author(s):  
Ekaterina Alekseevna Babintseva ◽  
Lyudmila Vasilievna Ponomarenko

The author devoted the paper to the peculiarities of bilateral cooperation between Russia and Germany in the field of maintaining a favourable environmental balance. The author notes that nature protection for a long time was not considered as a subject of interstate cooperation and did not fall into the focus of the agenda of important international summits. In connection with a number of historical reasons, at the beginning of the last century there was minimal state interest in organizing the protection of protected areas, conducting stabilization and supporting environmental measures, as well as ensuring the conservation and renewability of natural resources. The extensive path of economic development, the devastating military operations and the assessment of the natural environment as a resource basis for achieving primary state tasks contributed to the development of the global environmental crisis by the middle of the 20th century. The paper emphasizes that the starting point of international environmental cooperation and the adoption of a number of universal environmental acts were reports within the framework of the Club of Rome and further multilateral summits on climate and environmental issues dating back to the second half of the 20th century. The author assigns a special role within the framework of Russian-German environmental cooperation to the Nord Stream and Nord Stream-2 gas pipelines. The author emphasizes that cooperation within the framework of the projects took place in the context of the Western sanctions on Russia. Using energy projects as an example, the author showed in action the environmental relationship in the process of fuel and energy dialogue between partner countries. Based on an analysis of the results achieved, the author concludes that the future environmental cooperation between Russia and Germany is promising.


2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 32-38
Author(s):  
Anna A. Sorokina ◽  
Valentina M. Zubkova

The data on the analysis of changes in the number of rare species of birds, mammals and reptiles living within the boundaries of the specially protected natural territory - the natural monument Serebryany Bor for 2018-2020 is presented. The research used the method of visual accounting, winter route accounting, the method of route accounting of birds by E.S. Ravkin. As a result, rare species of animals listed in the Red Book were found, which indicates the biological diversity of the studied territory and justifies the need to use environmental measures within its borders to preserve rare species in the future.


2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 103-111
Author(s):  
Alexander V. Lukanin ◽  
Elena S. Klevanova

Now Russia is one of the worlds leading coal producers. Particles inevitably pass into an aerosol state, forming dust, which is subsequently emitted into the atmosphere during the extraction, crushing, sorting and transportation of coal. This dust negatively affects the health of workers in the mining industry, as well as the population of the residential area. In this regard, the question arises about the effective air cleaning in the working area from coal dust and reducing its concentration. The work purpose is to develop a comprehensive cleaning of gas-air emissions from coal dust in the working area where it is transported. The main task is to create an additional degree of air purification from coal dust. For this purpose, a vortex absorber was used, which is a cylindrical apparatus in which a contact element with perforated holes is located. The geometric dimensions of the absorber and its main parameters have been determined. The absorber developed by the authors has shown very good results as a device for the final purification of gas-air emissions. The efficiency of trapping small solid particles in the presented scheme reaches 99%. At the same time, as a result of the introduction of this installation, effective air purification from dust particles with a diameter of about 0.2 microns is carried out and the coal briquettes production is increased by 144 tons per year.


2021 ◽  
pp. practneurol-2021-003056
Author(s):  
Thomas D Parker ◽  
Richard Rees ◽  
Sangeerthana Rajagopal ◽  
Colette Griffin ◽  
Luke Goodliffe ◽  
...  

Post-traumatic amnesia is the transient state of altered brain function that may follow a traumatic brain injury. At a practical level, an individual has emerged from post-traumatic amnesia when he or she is fully orientated and with return of continuous memory. However, the clinical manifestations are often more complex, with numerous cognitive domains commonly affected, as well as behaviour. In the acute setting, post-traumatic amnesia may easily go unrecognised; this is problematic as it has important implications for both immediate management and for longer-term prognosis. We therefore recommend its careful clinical assessment and prospective evaluation using validated tools. Patients in post-traumatic amnesia who have behavioural disturbance can be particularly challenging to manage. Behavioural and environmental measures form the mainstay of its treatment while avoiding pharmacological interventions where possible, as they may worsen agitation. Patients need assessing regularly to determine their need for further rehabilitation and to facilitate safe discharge planning.


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