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Author(s):  
Ondřej Dvouletý ◽  
◽  
Jarmila Duháček Šebestová ◽  
Ivana Svobodová ◽  
Blanka Habrmanová ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 114 ◽  
pp. 105949
Author(s):  
Kristýna Křištofová ◽  
Michal Lehnert ◽  
Stanislav Martinát ◽  
Vladimír Tokar ◽  
Zdeněk Opravil

2022 ◽  
Vol 116 (1) ◽  
pp. 4-10
Author(s):  
David Milde

The monitoring of water quality in the EU is described in detail and regulated by Directives of the European Commission and the Parliament, which underlines the importance of the quality of water (both potable and non-potable). Analysis of trace concentrations of contaminants in water, including metals, still presents challenges to demonstrate the quality and comparability of results. The article provides a detailed overview of the procedures that laboratories can use to assess the reliability of the results obtained by a particular measurement procedure. Emphasis is placed on three basic pillars: metrological traceability, validation and measurement uncertainty. Subsequently continuous evaluation is carried out using internal and external quality management measures. Regional aspects specific for the Czech Republic are also mentioned.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Gabriela Lukesova ◽  
Eva Voslarova ◽  
Vladimir Vecerek ◽  
Katarina Nenadovic

Abstract Background Wildlife rescue centres care for orphaned and injured young as an integral part of their work. However, inappropriate interventions in nature can have a negative effect on the survival of young hares, especially when the care of these young is not very successful. The aim of this study was to assess the number of brown hare leverets admitted to rescue centres in the Czech Republic in the period from 2010 to 2019, the causes of their admission to rescue centres and their outcomes. Results We evaluated the number of brown hare leverets admitted to rescue centres in the Czech Republic in the period from 2010 to 2019 and the outcomes associated with their leaving these rescue centres. We found that the number of brown hare leverets admitted increased during the monitored period (rSp = 0.6364, p < 0.05). The most frequent reasons for admission were the admission of orphaned young (49.15%), leverets brought needlessly (19.60%) and leverets that had been bitten by other animals (18.63%). More (p < 0.05) young admitted to rescue centres died (40.76%) than were reared successfully and released back into the wild (32.40%). Leverets that had been caught needlessly or orphaned and late-born leverets survived and could be released back into the wild (38.56, 34.51 and 52%, respectively), while fatalities were recorded in most leverets bitten by another animal (65.05%) or hit in a collision with a vehicle (97.06%). Most young hares (76.92%) that were exhausted or starved at the time of admission could not be saved. Conclusions Since only a small proportion of hares in a litter survive until adulthood in the wild, young animals being found and taken needlessly to rescue centres may harm the hare population. Our results show that only around one in three healthy young hares admitted to rescue centres are reared successfully. It is, in our opinion, of fundamental importance to the protection of brown hare leverets to inform the public of this issue and prevent needless interventions into natural rearing in the wild.


Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 137
Author(s):  
Rudolf Brázdil ◽  
Pavel Zahradníček ◽  
Petr Dobrovolný ◽  
Jan Řehoř ◽  
Miroslav Trnka ◽  
...  

Thirty-year periods are treated in climatology as spans with relatively representative and stable climatic patterns, which can be used for calculating climate normals. Annual and seasonal series of circulation types were used to compare two 30-year sub-periods, 1961–1990 and 1991–2020, the second one being strongly influenced by recent global warming. This analysis was conducted according to the objective classification of circulation types and the climatic characteristics of sunshine duration, temperature, humidity, precipitation, and wind speed as calculated for the territory of the Czech Republic during the 1961–2020 period. For both sub-periods, their statistical characteristics were calculated, and the statistical significance of differences between them was evaluated. There was a statistically significant increase in the annual frequencies of anticyclonic circulation types and a significant decrease in cyclonic circulation types during 1991–2020 compared with 1961–1990. Generally, in both 30-year periods, significant differences in means, variability, characteristics of distribution, density functions, and linear trends appear for all climatic variables analysed except precipitation. This indicates that the recent 30-year “normal” period of 1991–2020, known to be influenced more by recent climate change, is by its climatic characteristics unrepresentative of the stable climatic patterns of previous 30-year periods.


2022 ◽  
Vol 68 (No. 1) ◽  
pp. 19-25
Author(s):  
Miloš Knížek ◽  
Jan Liška ◽  
Adam Véle

The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantations in central Europe are currently damaged by a large-scale infestation by bark beetles (Scolytinae). Ips acuminatus and Ips sexdentatus are among the most aggressive species causing infestations of pine trees that are currently simultaneously attacked by Ips typographus. In pine plantations prone to damage, it is therefore necessary to carry out the bark beetle monitoring. One of the used methods is the pheromone bark beetle trapping using synthetic lures. The efficacy of synthetic lures differs. We tested the efficacy of commercially available lures used in the protection of pine trees. In total, we deployed 10 trap series, each consisting of traps with eight different lures and two unbaited traps (controls). Ips acuminatus and I. sexdentatus were most abundantly captured in Pheagr-IAC- and Sexowit-baited traps. Interestingly, the spruce species I. typographus was also captured and most often found in traps with Pheagr-IAC and Erosowit Tube lures. The number of captured beetles was consistent with the gradation phase of bark beetles. Our results suggest the suitability of pheromone traps for bark beetle monitoring. The use of Sexowit can be recommended especially in southwestern Moravia, where I. sexdentatus occurs in high numbers in the long run. In other parts of the Czech Republic, Pheagr-IAC alone can be used with sufficient efficacy. The use of the Erosowit Tube lure is also suitable for I. typographus and I. sexdentatus monitoring.


2022 ◽  
Vol 68 (No. 1) ◽  
pp. 8-18
Author(s):  
Jakub Dvořák ◽  
Jiří Korecký ◽  
Zuzana Faltinová ◽  
Dagmar Zádrapová

The sessile oak is a broadleaved tree species of great ecological and silvicultural importance. Oaks are the second most widespread deciduous tree species in the Czech Republic, and ongoing climate change negatively affects the abundant and often monocultural Norway spruce. Therefore, a proportional increase of more resilient tree species such as sessile oak has emerged. This study aimed to depict population genetic diversity when analysing 272 individuals from 10 subpopulations selected across the Czech Republic. Targeted populations were chosen based on the minimal expected human impact on the stand (presumably autochthonous stands). All individuals were genotyped using 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers (SSRs) assembled into two amplification multiplexes. The high discriminatory power of SSR markers was tested and confirmed by the probability of identity analysis. The genetic differentiation of the subpopulations was low yet significant, quantified by Wright’s F-statistics within the range from 0.012 to 0.029. Based on discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), we detected two populations with geographic genetic correlation (the 15<sup>th</sup> meridian east being a north-south boundary line) and one with a distinct genetic pattern. We assume that the population might previously be established from seed sources outside the Czech Republic. Moreover, to some extent, our findings advocate the legitimacy of the legislative rules for forest reproductive material (FRM) transfer.


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