pharmaceutical products
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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 79-92
R. R. Asmyatullin ◽  
I. A. Aydrus ◽  
Nagy Szabolcs

The global pharmaceutical market is one of the most innovative and dynamically developing sectors of the global economy. In addition, this industry can be considered highly profitable. Its role has especially increased in the context during the coronavirus pandemic. This article examines trade relations between Russia and Hungary in the pharmaceutical sector. For the Hungarian economy, the pharmaceutical industry is one of the traditional and most innovative sectors of the economy: about 86% of the manufactured products are exported. Hungary is among the top 20 largest exporting and importing countries of pharmaceutical products. The main partners of Hungary are the EU countries. Russia remains an important partner of Hungary in the export of pharmaceutical products, however, it we should note the downward trend of the Russian share in Hungarian exports, due to the sanctions policy on the part of the EU. After the imposition of sanctions in 2014, the growth rate of the Russian pharmaceutical market slowed down, which also negatively affected the volume of trade cooperation with European partners. Russia has traditionally been a major importer in the global pharmaceutical market. An important problem is the reduction of drug import dependence and the expansion of exports. For Russia, this will be possible thanks to the development of unique innovative products. Hungary is an attractive country for the development and expansion of Russia's trade relations in the global pharmaceutical market. For both countries, the pharmaceutical industry is strategically important. The situation with the coronavirus pandemic has shown that political differences can be leveled. Hungary became the first European country to conclude a contract with Russia for the supply of Sputnik V coronavirus vaccine. Thus, there is a high economic potential to make up for the lost pharmaceutical relationship between the two countries.

2022 ◽  
Elena A. Tyumina ◽  
Grigory A. Bazhutin ◽  
Irina B. Ivshina

Against the background of atense environmental situation, the risk of drug pollution in the natural environment is steadily increasing. Pharmaceuticals entering open ecosystems can cause toxic effects in wildlife from molecular to population levels. The aim of this research was to examine the impact of pharmaceutical pollutants on rhodococci, which are typical representatives of soil actinobacteria and active biodegraders of these compounds. The pharmaceutical products used in this research werediclofenac sodium and ibuprofen, which are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are widely used and frequently found in the environment. The most common cell adaptations of rhodococci to the effects of NSAIDs were changes in zeta potential, catalase activity, morphometric parameters and degree of hydrophobicity; elevated contents of total cellular lipids; and the formation of cell conglomerates. The findings demonstrated the adaptation mechanisms of rhodococci and their increased resistance to the toxic effects of the pharmaceutical pollutants. Keywords: pharmaceutical pollutants, NSAIDs, diclofenac, ibuprofen, cell responses, Rhodococcus

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Marcelo Pedrosa Gomes ◽  
Júlio César Moreira Brito ◽  
Fabio Vieira ◽  
Rafael Shinji Akiyama Kitamura ◽  
Philippe Juneau

This study investigated the occurrence and risk assessment of ten pharmaceutical products and two herbicides in the water of rivers from the Doce river watershed (Brazil). Of the 12 chemicals studied, ten (acyclovir, amoxicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, fluoxetine, erythromycin, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid) had a 100% detection rate. In general, total concentrations of all target drugs ranged from 4.6 to 14.5 μg L−1, with fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides being the most representative classes of pharmaceutical products. Herbicides were found at concentrations at least ten times higher than those of the individual pharmaceutical products and represented the major class of contaminants in the samples. Most of the contaminants studied were above concentrations that pose an ecotoxicological risk to aquatic biota. Urban wastewater must be the main source of contaminants in waterbodies. Our results show that, in addition to the study of metal in water (currently being conducted after the Fundão dam breach), there is an urgent need to monitor emerging contaminant in waters from Doce river watershed rivers, as some chemicals pose environmental risks to aquatic life and humans due to the use of surface water for drinking and domestic purposes by the local population. Special attention should be given to glyphosate, aminomethylphosaphonic acid, and to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin (whose concentrations are above predicted levels that induce resistance selection).

Atefeh Mousavi ◽  
Mehdi Mohammadzadeh ◽  
Hossein Zare

The purpose of this study is to identify elements that influence the sale of generic pharmaceutical products during their life cycle in order to achieve more comprehensive planning and to prevent a decline stage of the product life cycle (PLC). We used a system dynamic model to identify the behaviors of demand, supply, and competition as three major subsystems of PLC in generic pharmaceutical products. We first investigated the PLC patterns of 527 medicines to identify their “reference mode”, determined the causal loop of the pharmaceuticals phase of PLC based on both an in-depth literature review and experts’ opinions, and finally simulated a quantitative dynamic model based on real-world data between 2012 and 2019 from Iran. Based on the results, “total demand and accurate forecasting”, “marketing efforts”, and “R and D activities of a firm” are the most critical factors involved in the formation of a generic drug PLC. An increase of 20–50% of manufacturers’ marketing and R and D activities can raise sales by more than 50% in the decline stage of the PLC. The product life cycle can give generic manufacturers more insights into the processes leading to declining sales of their products. PLC may help to prevent a product from entering the decline stage even if the total demand for a generic drug is dropping in the market.

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
Jinjian Zheng ◽  
Christine L. Kirkpatrick ◽  
Daniel Lee ◽  
Xinxin Han ◽  
Ana I. Martinez ◽  

AbstractThe recent detection of potent carcinogenic nitrosamine impurities in several human medicines has triggered product recalls and interrupted the supply of critical medications for hundreds of millions of patients, illuminating the need for increased testing of nitrosamines in pharmaceutical products. However, the development of analytical methods for nitrosamine detection is challenging due to high sensitivity requirements, complex matrices, and the large number and variety of samples requiring testing. Herein, we report an analytical method for the analysis of a common nitrosamine, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), in pharmaceutical products using full evaporation static headspace gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous detection (FE-SHSGC-NPD). This method is sensitive, specific, accurate, and precise and has the potential to serve as a universal method for testing all semi-volatile nitrosamines across different drug products. Through elimination of the detrimental headspace-liquid partition, a quantitation limit of 0.25 ppb is achieved for NDMA, a significant improvement upon traditional LC-MS methods. The extraction of nitrosamines directly from solid sample not only simplifies the sample preparation procedure but also enables the method to be used for different products as is or with minor modifications, as demonstrated by the analysis of NDMA in 10+ pharmaceutical products. The in situ nitrosation that is commonly observed in GC methods for nitrosamine analysis was completely inhibited by the addition of a small volume solvent containing pyrogallol, phosphoric acid, and isopropanol. Employing simple procedures and low-cost instrumentation, this method can be implemented in any analytical laboratory for routine nitrosamine analysis, ensuring patient safety and uninterrupted supply of critical medications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 455
Jeyanthi Palanivelu ◽  
Sundaram Thanigaivel ◽  
Sundaram Vickram ◽  
Nibedita Dey ◽  
Dasha Mihaylova ◽  

Nowadays, food is no longer just for nutrition. Consumers are more demanding and expect to get health benefits from their daily meals. Various areas of the food industry are in great demand of functional chemicals to enhance the taste and nutritional value of their products. Probiotic bacteria have already been part of the human’s routine for good gut microbiota maintenance in terms of pharmaceutical products. Their incorporation in food however is a challenging task that offers great opportunities but has limitations as well. Specifically, the purpose of this review is to emphasize the importance of probiotics in food, to assess their survival through gastrointestinal tract, and to highlight the recent advances in approaches for their improved viability.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 106
Abdulrahman A. Halwani

Nanotechnology plays a significant role in the field of medicine and in drug delivery, mainly due to the major limitations affecting the conventional pharmaceutical agents, and older formulations and delivery systems. The effect of nanotechnology on healthcare is already being felt, as various nanotechnology applications have been developed, and several nanotechnology-based medicines are now on the market. Across many parts of the world, nanotechnology draws increasing investment from public authorities and the private sector. Most conventional drug-delivery systems (CDDSs) have an immediate, high drug release after administration, leading to increased administration frequency. Thus, many studies have been carried out worldwide focusing on the development of pharmaceutical nanomedicines for translation into products manufactured by local pharmaceutical companies. Pharmaceutical nanomedicine products are projected to play a major role in the global pharmaceutical market and healthcare system. Our objectives were to examine the nanomedicines approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in the global market, to briefly cover the challenges faced during their development, and to look at future perspectives. Additionally, the importance of nanotechnology in developing pharmaceutical products, the ideal properties of nanocarriers, the reasons behind the failure of some nanomedicines, and the important considerations in the development of nanomedicines will be discussed in brief.

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