Global Economy
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2021 ◽  
Mohammed Raei ◽  
Harriette Thurber Rasmussen

Significance Services and investment should recover this year but all regions are vulnerable to disruptions. Many supply-side strains will persist, as will the energy, transport and labour market dislocations, which will create shortages, volatile prices and pressure for government intervention.

Sumanta Bhattacharya ◽  
Bhavneet Kaur Sachdev

India is today one of the emerging global economy in the world. India stands at the 6th position in the world highest economy countries , tracing back to the New economy reform of 1991 led by the then Finance Minister Dr Manmohan Singh who led India to the pillars of liberalisation , privatization and Globalisation making India an open economy , with integration of national sectors , allowing private sectors to enter in the field and opening doors for foreign investors which has brought in massive economy growth for a population of 1.3 billion with more jobs and more employment opportunities and a rise in national income. Modernization of the agriculture sector has also contributes to the GDP by 19.9% for 2019-20 . During this COVID-19 Pandemic there has been a growth in India’s FDI , we also see a growth in the digital economy and foreign investors want to invest in India’s digital economy Prime Minister Modi scheme of Made in India has brought in more foreign investors with India to became a manufacturing hub in the upcoming year leading to a selfsufficient economy where India by 2030 is expected to become the third largest economy in the world. Keywords: Global economy, liberalisation, privatization, globalisation, new economy reform, FDI, employment

Rym Asserraji Asserraji

The deadly and infectious disease Corona Virus also known as Covid19, has deeply shaken the global economy. This tragedy has also affected the education sector, and this fear is likely to reverberate across the education sector universally. Various schools, colleges, and universities have discontinued in-person teaching. According to the assessment of the researchers, it is uncertain to get back to normal teaching anytime soon. Hence, social distancing is dominant at this stage, a fact that will have negative outcomes on learning opportunities. As it is stated by Stanley (2019:8), Educational units are struggling to find options to deal with this challenging situation. These circumstances make us realize that scenario planning is an urgent need for academic institutions. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to shed light on the challenges of remote teaching during the Covid19 pandemic on teachers at the university level and to try to figure out the possible resolutions and recommendations to develop distance teaching. A questionnaire has been designed as the major data collection instrument to carry out the investigation. The respondents are university professors affiliated with public and private universities in Morocco. Concerning the findings of the study, the respondents believe that remote teaching is extremely challenging due to a variety of factors and it is not effective at all.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (11) ◽  
pp. 2074-2088

Subject. The article analyzes the competition of the world leading currencies in the global economy, specifics of the current stage, trends in the role of particular currencies in the global market. Objectives. The purpose is to review the current positions of the U.S. Dollar, Euro and Yuan in the global financial markets, assess prospects for maintaining the leading role of the U.S. Dollar, development trends in the position of Euro and Yuan. Methods. I applied the content analysis of available sources, provide a historical overview of issues under consideration, scrutinized the estimates of financial analysts. Results. The paper unveils reasons for increased competition of the leading currencies (U.S. Dollar, Euro, Yuan) in the global foreign exchange market, which include an increase in the scale of payment transactions in the global financial and commodity markets. It also reveals trends in the use of particular currencies in foreign trade and financial transactions, evaluates prospects for the use of specific world currencies in the global economy. Conclusions. At present, U.S. Dollar maintains its leading positions. However, in the future, an increase in the use of Euro- and Yuan-denominated transactions should be expected in the commodity and financial markets due to enlarged presence of Chinese companies in the global economy. Further development of European integration can ensure the expansion of the single European currency in the global financial market. The share of Yuan in foreign exchange reserves of central banks tends to increase. Private investors' demand for Yuan is also expected to grow.

Mark Baldry ◽  
Nicholas Gurieff ◽  
Declan Keogh

Extensive in-situ resource utilisation (ISRU) will be essential to enable long-duration stays on Luna and Mars and reduce reliance on resupply from Earth. Early development of ISRU technologies has focused on standalone capabilities for specific targets related to life support and ascent propellant. An unexplored opportunity remains for greatly expanding the scope of materials that can be supplied by ISRU, and for integrating various technology platforms into a larger system. Recent advances in power-to-X technology aimed at decarbonising the global economy have made it possible to drive key chemical processes using electricity with small-scale, modular reactor. This paper proposes a vision for an integrated system of ISRU processes based on power-to-X technology to produce oxygen, hydrogen, water, methane, polymers, metal alloys, and synthetic fertilisers, using Martian regolith, atmosphere, and ice. A ‘building block’ strategy is adopted to convert raw materials into versatile intermediaries, which can then be combined to form essential products. A wider range of raw materials are available on Mars compared to Luna, suggesting greater opportunity for ISRU deployment to compensate for the greater time and cost requirements for a Mars resupply mission.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Issa Moussa Diop ◽  
Chantal Cherifi ◽  
Cherif Diallo ◽  
Hocine Cherifi

AbstractAir transportation plays an essential role in the global economy. Therefore, there is a great deal of work to understand better the complex network formed by the links between the origins and destinations of flights. Some investigations show that the world air transportation network exhibits a community and a core-periphery structure. Although precious, these representations do not distinguish the inter-regional (global) web of connections from the regional (local) one. Therefore, we propose a new mesoscopic model called the component structure that decomposes the network into local and global components. Local components are the dense areas of the network, and global components are the nodes and links bridging the local components. As a case study, we consider the unweighted and undirected world air transportation network. Experiments show that it contains seven large local components and multiple small ones spatially well-defined. Moreover, it has a main global component covering the world. We perform an extensive comparative analysis of the structure of the components. Results demonstrate the non-homogeneous nature of the world air transportation network. The local components structure highlights regional differences, and the global component organization captures the efficiency of inter-regional travel. Centrality analysis of the components allows distinguishing airports centered on regional destinations from those focused on inter-regional exchanges. Core analysis is more accurate in the components than in the whole network where Europe dominates, blurring the rest of the world. Besides the world air transportation network, this paper demonstrates the potential of the component decomposition for modeling and analyzing the mesoscale structure of networks.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
pp. 187-193
Zhenghao Wu ◽  
Yijun Shi ◽  
Qiuxue Xia ◽  
Jiahao Zhuang

As the COVID-19 pandemic hit the whole world unexpectedly, the connection between people was cut, and people had to adopt a new method to interact. This paper focuses on techniques used to conquer obstacles due to the pandemic and how Chinese businessmen preserved their culture at the same time. Combining the traditional way of negotiation with the new methods is also a topic worth negotiating. The whole world can see how Chinese businessmen rapidly adapt to the new environment. Since this is an unprecedented crisis and topic to discuss, the theme of this paper is not found in much research. Hopefully, the findings in the paper will guide negotiators throughout the world. A pause button has been pushed on the global economy; China was also estimated to suffer a plunge in the economy. However, this paper offers an alternative guess that China is overgrowing after COVID-19 is mainly under control. There is little research done on this abstract topic of negotiation after the pandemic. Thus, this paper primarily cites articles from before the pandemic as an introduction to the Chinese negotiation style and uses qualitative first-hand from the survey. Representatives in the survey have abundant experience in negotiation and conducting business in China. The survey results suggest positive expectations from businessmen in China, and the younger the group surveyed, the more likely they are to adapt to the new ways to negotiate. The findings in this paper can be a lighthouse for future study in acceptance and application of the use of novel methods developed during the pandemic.

2021 ◽  
Zico Meetei Mutum ◽  
Abdullah A Ahmadini ◽  
Ahmed Msmali Hussein ◽  
Yaspal Raghav Singh

The novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) has resulted in an ongoing pandemic affecting the health system and devastating impact on global economy. The virus has been found in human feces, in sewage and in wastewater treatment plants. We highlight the transmission behavior, occurrence, and persistence of coronavirus in sewage and wastewater treatment plants. Our approach is to follow in the process of identifying a coronavirus hotspot through existing wastewater plants in major cities of Saudi Arabia. The mathematical distributions including log-normal distribution, Gaussian model and susceptible- exposed-infection-recovered- (SEIR) model are adopted to predict the coronavirus load in wastewater plants. This paper highlights not only the potential virus removal techniques from wastewater treatment plants but also to facilitate tracing of SARS-CoV-2 virus in human through wastewater treatment plants.

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