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Universe ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 52
Misba Afrin ◽  
Sushant G. Ghosh

The Event Horizon Telescope collaboration has revealed the first direct image of a black hole, as per the shadow of a Kerr black hole of general relativity. However, other Kerr-like rotating black holes of modified gravity theories cannot be ignored, and they are essential as they offer an arena in which these theories can be tested through astrophysical observation. This motivates us to investigate asymptotically de Sitter rotating black holes wherein interpreting the cosmological constant Λ as the vacuum energy leads to a deformation in the vicinity of a black hole—new Kerr–de Sitter solution, which has a richer geometric structure than the original one. We derive an analytical formula necessary for the shadow of the new Kerr–de Sitter black holes and then visualize the shadow of black holes for various parameters for an observer at given coordinates (r0,θ0) in the domain (r0,rc) and estimate the cosmological constant Λ from its shadow observables. The shadow observables of the new Kerr–de Sitter black holes significantly deviate from the corresponding observables of the Kerr–de Sitter black hole over an appreciable range of the parameter space. Interestingly, we find a finite parameter space for (Λ, a) where the observables of the two black holes are indistinguishable.

Diego Fernández-Silvestre ◽  
Joshua Foo ◽  
Michael R.R Good

Abstract The Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) metric is the simplest spacetime solution in general relativity with both a black hole event horizon and a cosmological event horizon. Since the Schwarzschild metric is the most simple solution of Einstein's equations with spherical symmetry and the de Sitter metric is the most simple solution of Einstein's equations with a positive cosmological constant, the combination in the SdS metric defines an appropriate background geometry for semi-classical investigation of Hawking radiation with respect to past and future horizons. Generally, the black hole temperature is larger than that of the cosmological horizon, so there is heat flow from the smaller black hole horizon to the larger cosmological horizon, despite questions concerning the definition of the relative temperature of the black hole without a measurement by an observer sitting in an asymptotically flat spacetime. Here we investigate the accelerating boundary correspondence (ABC) of the radiation in SdS spacetime without such a problem. We have solved for the boundary dynamics, energy flux and asymptotic particle spectrum. The distribution of particles is globally non-thermal while asymptotically the radiation reaches equilibrium.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Thomas Banks ◽  
Bingnan Zhang

We complete an old argument that causal diamonds in the crunching region of the Lorentzian continuation of a Coleman-Deluccia instanton for transitions out of de Sitter space have finite area, and provide quantum models consistent with the principle of detailed balance, which can mimic the instanton transition probabilities for the cases where this diamond is larger or smaller than the causal patch of de Sitter space. We review arguments that potentials which do not have a positive energy theorem when the lowest de Sitter minimum is shifted to zero, may not correspond to real models of quantum gravity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 163 (2) ◽  
pp. 55
Lorenzo Iorio

Abstract Putative natural massive satellites (exomoons) have gained increasing attention when they orbit Jupiter-like planets within the habitable zone of their host main-sequence star S. An exomoon s is expected to move within the equatorial plane of its host planet p, with its spin S s aligned with its orbital angular momentum L , which, in turn, is parallel to the planetary spin S p. If, in particular, the common tilt ε of such angular momenta to the plane of the satellite–planet motion about the star, assumed fixed, has certain values, the stellar latitudinal irradiation experienced on the exomoon may allow it to sustain life as we know it, at least for certain orbital configurations. An Earth analog (similar in mass, radius, oblateness, and obliquity) is considered, which orbits within 5–10 planetary radii R p from its Jupiter-like host planet. The de Sitter and Lense–Thirring spin precessions due to the general relativistic post-Newtonian (pN) field of the host planet have an impact on an exomoon’s habitability for a variety of different initial spin–orbit configurations. Here I show it by identifying long-term variations in the satellite’s obliquity ε s, where variations can be ≲10°–100°, depending on the initial spin–orbit configuration, with a timescale of ≃0.1–1 million years. Also the satellite’s quadrupole mass moment J 2 s induces obliquity variations that are faster than the pN ones but do not cancel them. Tidal dissipations, which may potentially have a relevant impact on the outlined pattern, are not included in the present analysis.

Xiankai Pang

We show that the accelerating expansion phase of the universe can emerge from the group field theory formalism, a candidate theory of quantum gravity. The cosmological evolution can be extracted from condensate states using mean field approximation, in a form of modified FLRW equations. By introducing an effective equation of state w, we can reveal the relevant features of the evolution, and show that with proper choice of parameters, w will approach to −1, corresponds to the behaviour of cosmological constant, results in a late time acceleration and leads to de Sitter spacetime asymptotically.

Entropy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Mariano Cadoni ◽  
Andrea P. Sanna

We explore the Hawking evaporation of two-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS2), dilatonic black hole coupled with conformal matter, and derive the Page curve for the entanglement entropy of radiation. We first work in a semiclassical approximation with backreaction. We show that the end-point of the evaporation process is AdS2 with a vanishing dilaton, i.e., a regular, singularity-free, zero-entropy state. We explicitly compute the entanglement entropies of the black hole and the radiation as functions of the horizon radius, using the conformal field theory (CFT) dual to AdS2 gravity. We use a simplified toy model, in which evaporation is described by the forming and growing of a negative mass configuration in the positive-mass black hole interior. This is similar to the “islands” proposal, recently put forward to explain the Page curve for evaporating black holes. The resulting Page curve for AdS2 black holes is in agreement with unitary evolution. The entanglement entropy of the radiation initially grows, closely following a thermal behavior, reaches a maximum at half-way of the evaporation process, and then goes down to zero, following the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy of the black hole. Consistency of our simplified model requires a non-trivial identification of the central charge of the CFT describing AdS2 gravity with the number of species of fields describing Hawking radiation.

Chun-Hung Chen ◽  
Hing Tong Cho ◽  
Anna Chrysostomou ◽  
Alan Cornell

Abstract While Hod's conjecture is demonstrably restrictive, the link he observed between black hole (BH) area quantisation and the large overtone ($n$) limit of quasinormal frequencies (QNFs) motivated intense scrutiny of the regime, from which an improved understanding of asymptotic quasinormal frequencies (aQNFs) emerged. A further outcome was the development of the ``monodromy technique", which exploits an anti-Stokes line analysis to extract physical solutions from the complex plane. Here, we use the monodromy technique to validate extant aQNF expressions for perturbations of integer spin, and provide new results for the aQNFs of half-integer spins within higher-dimensional Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstr{\"o}m, and Schwarzschild (anti-)de Sitter BH spacetimes. Bar the Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter case, the spin-1/2 aQNFs are purely imaginary; the spin-3/2 aQNFs resemble spin-1/2 aQNFs in Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild de Sitter BHs, but match the gravitational perturbations for most others. Particularly for Schwarzschild, extremal Reissner-Nordstr{\"o}m, and several Schwarzschild de Sitter cases, the application of $n \rightarrow \infty$ generally fixes $\mathbb{R}e \{ \omega \}$ and allows for the unbounded growth of $\mathbb{I}m \{ \omega \}$ in fixed quantities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 105 (2) ◽  
Cheng-Yong Zhang ◽  
Peng Liu ◽  
Yunqi Liu ◽  
Chao Niu ◽  
Bin Wang

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (1) ◽  
Guillermo Ballesteros ◽  
Sebastián Céspedes ◽  
Luca Santoni

Abstract We study the generation of a large power spectrum, necessary for primordial black hole formation, within the effective theory of single-field inflation. The mechanisms we consider include a transition into a ghost-inflation-like phase and scenarios where an exponentially growing mode is temporarily turned on. In the cases we discuss, the enhancement in the power spectrum results from either a swift change in some effective coupling or a modification of the dispersion relation for the perturbations, while the background evolution remains unchanged and approximately de Sitter throughout inflation. The robustness of the results is guaranteed thanks to a weakly broken galileon symmetry, which protects the effective couplings against large quantum corrections. We discuss how the enhancement of the power spectrum is related to the energy scale of the operators with weakly broken galileon invariance, and study the limits imposed by strong coupling and the validity of the perturbative expansion.

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