We describe a model of artificial intelligence systems based on the dimension of the probability space of the input set available for recognition. In this scenario, we can understand a subset, which means that we can decide whether an object is an element of a given subset or not in an efficient way. In the machine learning (ML) process we define appropriate features, in this way shrinking the defining bit-length of classified sets during the learning process. This can also be described in the language of entropy: while natural processes tend to increase the disorder, that is, increase the entropy, learning creates order, and we expect that it decreases a properly defined entropy.
The Event Horizon Telescope collaboration has revealed the first direct image of a black hole, as per the shadow of a Kerr black hole of general relativity. However, other Kerr-like rotating black holes of modified gravity theories cannot be ignored, and they are essential as they offer an arena in which these theories can be tested through astrophysical observation. This motivates us to investigate asymptotically de Sitter rotating black holes wherein interpreting the cosmological constant Λ as the vacuum energy leads to a deformation in the vicinity of a black hole—new Kerr–de Sitter solution, which has a richer geometric structure than the original one. We derive an analytical formula necessary for the shadow of the new Kerr–de Sitter black holes and then visualize the shadow of black holes for various parameters for an observer at given coordinates (r0,θ0) in the domain (r0,rc) and estimate the cosmological constant Λ from its shadow observables. The shadow observables of the new Kerr–de Sitter black holes significantly deviate from the corresponding observables of the Kerr–de Sitter black hole over an appreciable range of the parameter space. Interestingly, we find a finite parameter space for (Λ, a) where the observables of the two black holes are indistinguishable.
This work is based on the formalism developed in the study of the thermodynamics of spacetime used to derive Einstein equations from the proportionality of entropy within an area. When low-energy quantum gravity effects are considered, an extra logarithmic term in the area is added to the entropy expression. Here, we present the derivation of the quantum modified gravitational dynamics from this modified entropy expression and discuss its main features. Furthermore, we outline the application of the modified dynamics to cosmology, suggesting the replacement of the Big Bang singularity with a regular bounce.
We consider the fourth-order differential theory of gravitation to treat the problem of singularity avoidance: studying the short-distance behaviour in the case of black-holes and the big-bang we are going to see a way to attack the issue from a general perspective.
In this paper, we study the perturbations of the charged static spherically symmetric black holes in the f(R)=R−2αR model by a scalar field. We analyze the quasinormal modes spectrum, superradiant modes, and superradiant instability of the black holes. The frequency of the quasinormal modes is calculated in the frequency domain by the third-order WKB method, and in the time domain by the finite difference method. The results by the two methods are consistent and show that the black hole stabilizes quicker for larger α satisfying the horizon condition. We then analyze the superradiant modes when the massive charged scalar field is scattered by the black hole. The frequency of the superradiant wave satisfies ω∈(μ2,ωc), where μ is the mass of the scalar field, and ωc is the critical frequency of the superradiance. The amplification factor is also calculated by numerical method. Furthermore, the superradiant instability of the black hole is studied analytically, and the results show that there is no superradiant instability for such a system.
Neutron star is an important object for us to verify the equation of state of hadronic matter. For a specific choice of equations of state, mass and radius of a neutron star are determined, for which there are constraints from observations. According to some previous studies, since the strong magnetic field acts as a repulsive force, there is a possibility that neutron stars with strong magnetic fields may have relatively heavier masses than other non-magnetized neutron stars. In this paper, the structure of a neutron star with a strong internal magnetic field is investigated by changing its internal functional form to see how much the neutron star can be massive and also how radius of a neutron star can be within a certain range.
Neutrinos are a powerful tool for searching physics beyond the standard model of elementary particles. In this review, we present the status of the research on charge-parity-time (CPT) symmetry and Lorentz invariance violations using neutrinos emitted from the collapse of stars such as supernovae and other astrophysical environments, such as gamma-ray bursts. Particularly, supernova neutrino fluxes may provide precious information because all neutrino and antineutrino flavors are emitted during a burst of tens of seconds. Models of quantum gravity may allow the violation of Lorentz invariance and possibly of CPT symmetry. Violation of Lorentz invariance may cause a modification of the dispersion relation and, therefore, in the neutrino group velocity as well in the neutrino wave packet. These changes can affect the arrival time signal registered in astrophysical neutrino detectors. Direction or time-dependent oscillation probabilities and anisotropy of the neutrino velocity are manifestations of the same kind of new physics. CPT violation, on the other hand, may be responsible for different oscillation patterns for neutrino and antineutrino and unconventional energy dependency of the oscillation phase or of the mixing angles. Future perspectives for possible CPT and Lorentz violating systems are also presented.
We discuss the evolution of stars through the asymptotic giant branch, focusing on the physical mechanisms potentially able to alter the surface chemical composition and on how changes in the chemistry of the external regions affect the physical properties of the star and the duration of this evolutionary phase. We focus on the differences between the evolution of low-mass stars, driven by the growth of the core mass and by the surface carbon enrichment, and that of their higher mass counterparts, which experience hot bottom burning. In the latter sources, the variation of the surface chemical composition reflects the equilibria of the proton capture nucleosynthesis experienced at the base of the convective envelope. The pollution expected from this class of stars is discussed, outlining the role of mass and metallicity on the chemical composition of the ejecta. To this aim, we considered evolutionary models of 0.7–8 M⊙ stars in a wide range of metallicities, extending from the ultra-metal-poor domain to super-solar chemistries.
Little is known about the first stars, but hints on this stellar population can be derived from the peculiar chemical composition of the most metal-poor objects in the Milky Way and in resolved stellar populations of nearby galaxies. In this paper, we review the evolution and nucleosynthesis of metal-poor and extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with low and intermediate masses. In particular, new models of 6 M⊙ with three different levels of metallicity, namely Z=10−4, 10−6 and 10−10, are presented. In addition, we illustrate the results obtained for a 2 M⊙, Z=10−5 model. All these models have been computed by means of the latest version of the FuNS code. We adopted a fully coupled scheme of solutions for the complete set of differential equations describing the evolution of the physical structure and the chemical abundances, as modified by nuclear processes and convective mixing. The scarcity of CNO in the material from which these stars formed significantly affects their evolution, their final fate and their contribution to the chemical pollution of the ISM in primordial galaxies. We show the potential of these models for the interpretation of the composition of EMP stars, with particular emphasis on CEMP stars.