hidden markov
Recently Published Documents





Automatica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 137 ◽  
pp. 110100
Rahul Singh ◽  
Qinsheng Zhang ◽  
Yongxin Chen

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Junjie Yan ◽  
Kevin Huang ◽  
Kyle Lindgren ◽  
Tamara Bonaci ◽  
Howard J. Chizeck

In this article, we present a novel approach for continuous operator authentication in teleoperated robotic processes based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM). While HMMs were originally developed and widely used in speech recognition, they have shown great performance in human motion and activity modeling. We make an analogy between human language and teleoperated robotic processes (i.e., words are analogous to a teleoperator’s gestures, sentences are analogous to the entire teleoperated task or process) and implement HMMs to model the teleoperated task. To test the continuous authentication performance of the proposed method, we conducted two sets of analyses. We built a virtual reality (VR) experimental environment using a commodity VR headset (HTC Vive) and haptic feedback enabled controller (Sensable PHANToM Omni) to simulate a real teleoperated task. An experimental study with 10 subjects was then conducted. We also performed simulated continuous operator authentication by using the JHU-ISI Gesture and Skill Assessment Working Set (JIGSAWS). The performance of the model was evaluated based on the continuous (real-time) operator authentication accuracy as well as resistance to a simulated impersonation attack. The results suggest that the proposed method is able to achieve 70% (VR experiment) and 81% (JIGSAWS dataset) continuous classification accuracy with as short as a 1-second sample window. It is also capable of detecting an impersonation attack in real-time.

2022 ◽  
Mahbubeh Bahreini ◽  
Ramin Barati ◽  
Abbas Kamaly

Abstract Early diagnosis is crucial in the treatment of heart diseases. Researchers have applied a variety of techniques for cardiovascular disease diagnosis, including the detection of heart sounds. It is an efficient and affordable diagnosis technique. Body organs, including the heart, generate several sounds. These sounds are different in different individuals. A number of methodologies have been recently proposed to detect and diagnose normal/abnormal sounds generated by the heart. The present study proposes a technique on the basis of the Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, fractal dimension, and hidden Markov model. It uses the fractal dimension to identify sounds S1 and S2. Then, the Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and the first- and second-order difference Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients are employed to extract the features of the signals. The adaptive Hemming window length is a major advantage of the methodology. The S1-S2 interval determines the adaptive length. Heart sounds are divided into normal and abnormal through the improved hidden Markov model and Baum-Welch and Viterbi algorithms. The proposed framework is evaluated using a number of datasets under various scenarios.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Peng Wang ◽  
Jing Yang ◽  
Jianpei Zhang

Unlike outdoor trajectory prediction that has been studied many years, predicting the movement of a large number of users in indoor space like shopping mall has just been a hot and challenging issue due to the ubiquitous emerging of mobile devices and free Wi-Fi services in shopping centers in recent years. Aimed at solving the indoor trajectory prediction problem, in this paper, a hybrid method based on Hidden Markov approach is proposed. The proposed approach clusters Wi-Fi access points according to their similarities first; then, a frequent subtrajectory based HMM which captures the moving patterns of users has been investigated. In addition, we assume that a customer’s visiting history has certain patterns; thus, we integrate trajectory prediction with shop category prediction into a unified framework which further improves the predicting ability. Comprehensive performance evaluation using a large-scale real dataset collected between September 2012 and October 2013 from over 120,000 anonymized, opt-in consumers in a large shopping center in Sydney was conducted; the experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional HMM and perform well enough to be usable in practice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 286
Shawn D. Taylor ◽  
Dawn M. Browning

Near-surface cameras, such as those in the PhenoCam network, are a common source of ground truth data in modelling and remote sensing studies. Despite having locations across numerous agricultural sites, few studies have used near-surface cameras to track the unique phenology of croplands. Due to management activities, crops do not have a natural vegetation cycle which many phenological extraction methods are based on. For example, a field may experience abrupt changes due to harvesting and tillage throughout the year. A single camera can also record several different plants due to crop rotations, fallow fields, and cover crops. Current methods to estimate phenology metrics from image time series compress all image information into a relative greenness metric, which discards a large amount of contextual information. This can include the type of crop present, whether snow or water is present on the field, the crop phenology, or whether a field lacking green plants consists of bare soil, fully senesced plants, or plant residue. Here, we developed a modelling workflow to create a daily time series of crop type and phenology, while also accounting for other factors such as obstructed images and snow covered fields. We used a mainstream deep learning image classification model, VGG16. Deep learning classification models do not have a temporal component, so to account for temporal correlation among images, our workflow incorporates a hidden Markov model in the post-processing. The initial image classification model had out of sample F1 scores of 0.83–0.85, which improved to 0.86–0.91 after all post-processing steps. The resulting time series show the progression of crops from emergence to harvest, and can serve as a daily, local-scale dataset of field states and phenological stages for agricultural research.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document