image classification
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2023 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-38
Gabriel Resende Machado ◽  
Eugênio Silva ◽  
Ronaldo Ribeiro Goldschmidt

Deep Learning algorithms have achieved state-of-the-art performance for Image Classification. For this reason, they have been used even in security-critical applications, such as biometric recognition systems and self-driving cars. However, recent works have shown those algorithms, which can even surpass human capabilities, are vulnerable to adversarial examples. In Computer Vision, adversarial examples are images containing subtle perturbations generated by malicious optimization algorithms to fool classifiers. As an attempt to mitigate these vulnerabilities, numerous countermeasures have been proposed recently in the literature. However, devising an efficient defense mechanism has proven to be a difficult task, since many approaches demonstrated to be ineffective against adaptive attackers. Thus, this article aims to provide all readerships with a review of the latest research progress on Adversarial Machine Learning in Image Classification, nevertheless, with a defender’s perspective. This article introduces novel taxonomies for categorizing adversarial attacks and defenses, as well as discuss possible reasons regarding the existence of adversarial examples. In addition, relevant guidance is also provided to assist researchers when devising and evaluating defenses. Finally, based on the reviewed literature, this article suggests some promising paths for future research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-14
Shuteng Niu ◽  
Yushan Jiang ◽  
Bowen Chen ◽  
Jian Wang ◽  
Yongxin Liu ◽  

In the past decades, information from all kinds of data has been on a rapid increase. With state-of-the-art performance, machine learning algorithms have been beneficial for information management. However, insufficient supervised training data is still an adversity in many real-world applications. Therefore, transfer learning (TF) was proposed to address this issue. This article studies a not well investigated but important TL problem termed cross-modality transfer learning (CMTL). This topic is closely related to distant domain transfer learning (DDTL) and negative transfer. In general, conventional TL disciplines assume that the source domain and the target domain are in the same modality. DDTL aims to make efficient transfers even when the domains or the tasks are entirely different. As an extension of DDTL, CMTL aims to make efficient transfers between two different data modalities, such as from image to text. As the main focus of this study, we aim to improve the performance of image classification by transferring knowledge from text data. Previously, a few CMTL algorithms were proposed to deal with image classification problems. However, most existing algorithms are very task specific, and they are unstable on convergence. There are four main contributions in this study. First, we propose a novel heterogeneous CMTL algorithm, which requires only a tiny set of unlabeled target data and labeled source data with associate text tags. Second, we introduce a latent semantic information extraction method to connect the information learned from the image data and the text data. Third, the proposed method can effectively handle the information transfer across different modalities (text-image). Fourth, we examined our algorithm on a public dataset, Office-31. It has achieved up to 5% higher classification accuracy than “non-transfer” algorithms and up to 9% higher than existing CMTL algorithms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 293 ◽  
pp. 110684
Jordan J. Bird ◽  
Chloe M. Barnes ◽  
Luis J. Manso ◽  
Anikó Ekárt ◽  
Diego R. Faria

Jaya Gupta ◽  
Sunil Pathak ◽  
Gireesh Kumar

Image classification is critical and significant research problems in computer vision applications such as facial expression classification, satellite image classification, and plant classification based on images. Here in the paper, the image classification model is applied for identifying the display of daunting pictures on the internet. The proposed model uses Convolution neural network to identify these images and filter them through different blocks of the network, so that it can be classified accurately. The model will work as an extension to the web browser and will work on all websites when activated. The extension will be blurring the images and deactivating the links on web pages. This means that it will scan the entire web page and find all the daunting images present on that page. Then we will blur those images before they are loaded and the children could see them. Keywords— Activation Function, CNN, Images Classification , Optimizers, VGG-19

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