classification model
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Tongguang Ni ◽  
Jiaqun Zhu ◽  
Jia Qu ◽  
Jing Xue

Edge/fog computing works at the local area network level or devices connected to the sensor or the gateway close to the sensor. These nodes are located in different degrees of proximity to the user, while the data processing and storage are distributed among multiple nodes. In healthcare applications in the Internet of things, when data is transmitted through insecure channels, its privacy and security are the main issues. In recent years, learning from label proportion methods, represented by inverse calibration (InvCal) method, have tried to predict the class label based on class label proportions in certain groups. For privacy protection, the class label of the sample is often sensitive and invisible. As a compromise, only the proportion of class labels in certain groups can be used in these methods. However, due to their weak labeling scheme, their classification performance is often unsatisfactory. In this article, a labeling privacy protection support vector machine using privileged information, called LPP-SVM-PI, is proposed to promote the accuracy of the classifier in infectious disease diagnosis. Based on the framework of the InvCal method, besides using the proportion information of the class label, the idea of learning using privileged information is also introduced to capture the additional information of groups. The slack variables in LPP-SVM-PI are represented as correcting function and projected into the correcting space so that the hidden information of training samples in groups is captured by relaxing the constraints of the classification model. The solution of LPP-SVM-PI can be transformed into a classic quadratic programming problem. The experimental dataset is collected from the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transcription polymerase chain reaction at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein in Brazil. In the experiment, LPP-SVM-PI is efficiently applied for COVID-19 diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (7) ◽  
pp. 0-0

At present, most risk management work mainly relies on manpower, and manpower relies on the professional knowledge of relevant skilled workers to discover hidden safety risks in production activities. This article combines relevant big data theories and 4V characteristics to analyze and investigate safety production and big data, study data structure, data source and data type. Using 5W1H scientific big data and applications, this analysis method analyzes the theoretical basis, applications and beneficiaries of big data related to safety production, some of which are application links and important theoretical issues. Secondly, it studies the security risk management model based on big data, proposes a risk management model based on big data, the technical basis of big data and the idea of a three-dimensional model, and applies the systematic space method, which is reflected in three aspects of risk management. In the end, a risk identification model based on big data, a risk assessment classification model, and a risk early warning and pre-control model are defined.

Krishnan V. Gokula ◽  
Deepa J. ◽  
Rao Pinagadi Venkateswara ◽  
Divya V. ◽  
Kaviarasan S.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-27
Yang Yang ◽  
Hongchen Wei ◽  
Zhen-Qiang Sun ◽  
Guang-Yu Li ◽  
Yuanchun Zhou ◽  

Open set classification (OSC) tackles the problem of determining whether the data are in-class or out-of-class during inference, when only provided with a set of in-class examples at training time. Traditional OSC methods usually train discriminative or generative models with the owned in-class data, and then utilize the pre-trained models to classify test data directly. However, these methods always suffer from the embedding confusion problem, i.e., partial out-of-class instances are mixed with in-class ones of similar semantics, making it difficult to classify. To solve this problem, we unify semi-supervised learning to develop a novel OSC algorithm, S2OSC, which incorporates out-of-class instances filtering and model re-training in a transductive manner. In detail, given a pool of newly coming test data, S2OSC firstly filters the mostly distinct out-of-class instances using the pre-trained model, and annotates super-class for them. Then, S2OSC trains a holistic classification model by combing in-class and out-of-class labeled data with the remaining unlabeled test data in a semi-supervised paradigm. Furthermore, considering that data are usually in the streaming form in real applications, we extend S2OSC into an incremental update framework (I-S2OSC), and adopt a knowledge memory regularization to mitigate the catastrophic forgetting problem in incremental update. Despite the simplicity of proposed models, the experimental results show that S2OSC achieves state-of-the-art performance across a variety of OSC tasks, including 85.4% of F1 on CIFAR-10 with only 300 pseudo-labels. We also demonstrate how S2OSC can be expanded to incremental OSC setting effectively with streaming data.

The training of special ability of skiing should start from the control of body posture ability to highlight the characteristics of the sports. Thus, the athletes can have the sports ability in the process of high-speed skiing. This paper establishes a system to automatically recognize the skiing posture which can help athletes grasp the skiing postures. First, the skiing images are collected by distributed camera. Second, the skeleton features are extracted to learn a classification model which is used to recognize and adjust skiing postures. Lastly, the analytical results of posture recognition is returned to athletes through Internet of bodies. The framework can effectively recognize the skiing postures and provide athletes with training advices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 188 ◽  
pp. 111449
Yilin Chen ◽  
Chuanshi Liu ◽  
Yiming Du ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Jiayuan Yu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-29
Kai Wang ◽  
Jun Pang ◽  
Dingjie Chen ◽  
Yu Zhao ◽  
Dapeng Huang ◽  

Exploiting the anonymous mechanism of Bitcoin, ransomware activities demanding ransom in bitcoins have become rampant in recent years. Several existing studies quantify the impact of ransomware activities, mostly focusing on the amount of ransom. However, victims’ reactions in Bitcoin that can well reflect the impact of ransomware activities are somehow largely neglected. Besides, existing studies track ransom transfers at the Bitcoin address level, making it difficult for them to uncover the patterns of ransom transfers from a macro perspective beyond Bitcoin addresses. In this article, we conduct a large-scale analysis of ransom payments, ransom transfers, and victim migrations in Bitcoin from 2012 to 2021. First, we develop a fine-grained address clustering method to cluster Bitcoin addresses into users, which enables us to identify more addresses controlled by ransomware criminals. Second, motivated by the fact that Bitcoin activities and their participants already formed stable industries, such as Darknet and Miner , we train a multi-label classification model to identify the industry identifiers of users. Third, we identify ransom payment transactions and then quantify the amount of ransom and the number of victims in 63 ransomware activities. Finally, after we analyze the trajectories of ransom transferred across different industries and track victims’ migrations across industries, we find out that to obscure the purposes of their transfer trajectories, most ransomware criminals (e.g., operators of Locky and Wannacry) prefer to spread ransom into multiple industries instead of utilizing the services of Bitcoin mixers. Compared with other industries, Investment is highly resilient to ransomware activities in the sense that the number of users in Investment remains relatively stable. Moreover, we also observe that a few victims become active in the Darknet after paying ransom. Our findings in this work can help authorities deeply understand ransomware activities in Bitcoin. While our study focuses on ransomware, our methods are potentially applicable to other cybercriminal activities that have similarly adopted bitcoins as their payments.

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