heart diseases
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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Gyeol Yoo ◽  
Jin Yong Jeong

AbstractCardiothoracic surgery usually causes tissue adhesion on the operation site which increases the risk of complications in the subsequent thoracic surgery including Nuss procedure. Disorders that require cardiothoracic surgery include chest wall deformities such as pectus excavatum, congenital heart diseases, lung diseases such as congenital cystic adenomatiod malformation and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Recently, we encountered a rare case of combined pectus excavatum and carinatum in a patient with a history of congenital esophageal atresia repair surgery. Commendably, despite tissue adhesion from the previous surgery, a modified Nuss procedure was performed successfully with no complications. We agree that the Nuss procedure is feasible for thoracic deformities in patients with a surgical history of cardiothoracic surgery.

2022 ◽  
Mahbubeh Bahreini ◽  
Ramin Barati ◽  
Abbas Kamaly

Abstract Early diagnosis is crucial in the treatment of heart diseases. Researchers have applied a variety of techniques for cardiovascular disease diagnosis, including the detection of heart sounds. It is an efficient and affordable diagnosis technique. Body organs, including the heart, generate several sounds. These sounds are different in different individuals. A number of methodologies have been recently proposed to detect and diagnose normal/abnormal sounds generated by the heart. The present study proposes a technique on the basis of the Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, fractal dimension, and hidden Markov model. It uses the fractal dimension to identify sounds S1 and S2. Then, the Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and the first- and second-order difference Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients are employed to extract the features of the signals. The adaptive Hemming window length is a major advantage of the methodology. The S1-S2 interval determines the adaptive length. Heart sounds are divided into normal and abnormal through the improved hidden Markov model and Baum-Welch and Viterbi algorithms. The proposed framework is evaluated using a number of datasets under various scenarios.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 70
Vikash Chandra Roy ◽  
Jin-Seok Park ◽  
Truc Cong Ho ◽  
Byung-Soo Chun

Japanese Spanish mackerel (JSM) (Scomberomorus niphonius) is a marine fish species containing health-beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In the present study, the quality of JSM by-products oils extracted by supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and organic solvent extraction was compared in terms of physico-chemical properties of the oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is one of the important polyunsaturated fatty acids present in SC-CO2-extracted skin and muscle oil 5.81 ± 0.69% and 4.93 ± 0.06%, respectively. The amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in SC-CO2-extracted skin and muscle oil was 12.56 ± 0.38% and 15.01 ± 0.28%, respectively. EPA and DHA are considered as important PUFAs for the development of brain function and the prevention of coronary heart diseases. Extracted oils showed considerable antioxidant activity. In the obtained oils, atherogenic index (AI) values varied from 0.72 to 0.93 and thrombogenic index (TI) ranged from 0.75 to 0.92, which is considered an acceptable level. Fatty acid composition, bio potentiality, thermogravimetric, and vitamin D analysis showed that oils extracted from JSM by-products can be a good source of oil for application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Therefore, the present research revealed the potentiality of green valorisation of S. niphonius by-products as a possible sustainable approach for targeting the era of zero waste.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Rujun Liao ◽  
Lin Hu ◽  
Qiang Liao ◽  
Tianyu Zhu ◽  
Haiqun Yang ◽  

Abstract Background Continuous surveillance of death can measure health status of the population, reflect social development of a region, thus promote health service development in the region and improve the health level of local residents. Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture was a poverty-stricken region in Sichuan province, China. While at the end of 2020, as the announcement of its last seven former severely impoverished counties had shaken off poverty, Liangshan declared victory against poverty. Since it is well known that the mortality and cause of death structure will undergo some undesirable changes as the economy develops, this study aimed to reveal the distribution of deaths, as well as analyze the latest mortality and death causes distribution characteristics in Liangshan in 2020, so as to provide references for the decision-making on health policies and the distribution of health resources in global poverty-stricken areas. Methods Liangshan carried out the investigation on underreporting deaths among population in its 11 counties in 2018, and combined with the partially available data from underreporting deaths investigation data in 2020 and the field experience, we have estimated the underreporting rates of death in 2020 using capture-recapture (CRC) method. The crude mortality rate, age-standardized mortality rate, proportion and rank of the death causes, potential years of life lost (PYLL), average years of life lost (AYLL), potential years of life lost rate (PYLLR), standardized potential years of life lost (SPYLL), premature mortality from non-communicable diseases (premature NCD mortality), life expectancy and cause-eliminated life expectancy were estimated and corrected. Results In 2020, Liangshan reported a total of 16,850 deaths, with a crude mortality rate of 608.75/100,000 and an age-standardized mortality rate of 633.50/100,000. Male mortality was higher than female mortality, while 0-year-old mortality of men was lower than women’s. The former severely impoverished counties’ age-standardized mortality and 0-year-old mortality were higher than those of the non-impoverished counties. The main cause of death spectrum was noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), and the premature NCD mortality of four major NCDs were 14.26% for the overall population, 19.16% for men and 9.27% for women. In the overall population, the top five death causes were heart diseases (112.07/100,000), respiratory diseases (105.85/100,000), cerebrovascular diseases (87.03/100,000), malignant tumors (73.92/100,000) and injury (43.89/100,000). Injury (64,216.78 person years), malignant tumors (41,478.33 person years) and heart diseases (29,647.83 person years) had the greatest burden on residents in Liangshan, and at the same time, the burden of most death causes on men were greater than those on women. The life expectancy was 76.25 years for overall population, 72.92 years for men and 80.17 years for women, respectively, all higher than the global level (73.3, 70.8 and 75.9 years). Conclusions Taking Liangshan in China as an example, this study analyzed the latest death situation in poverty-stricken areas, and proposed suggestions on the formulation of health policies in other poverty-stricken areas both at home and abroad.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Qing Kong ◽  
Jinping Gu ◽  
Ruohan Lu ◽  
Caihua Huang ◽  
Xiaomin Hu ◽  

Viral myocarditis (VMC) is an inflammatory heart condition which can induce dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of VMC into DCM remain exclusive. Here, we established mouse models of VMC and DCM by infecting male BALB/c mice with Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and performed NMR-based metabonomic analyses of mouse sera. The mouse models covered three pathological stages including: acute VMC (aVMC), chronic VMC (cVMC) and DCM. We recorded 1D 1H-NMR spectra on serum samples and conducted multivariate statistical analysis on the NMR data. We found that metabolic profiles of these three pathological stages were distinct from their normal controls (CON), and identified significant metabolites primarily responsible for the metabolic distinctions. We identified significantly disturbed metabolic pathways in the aVMC, cVMC and DCM stages relative to CON, including: taurine and hypotaurine metabolism; pyruvate metabolism; glycine, serine and threonine metabolism; glycerolipid metabolism. Additionally, we identified potential biomarkers for discriminating a VMC, cVMC and DCM from CON including: taurine, valine and acetate for aVMC; glycerol, valine and leucine for cVMC; citrate, glycine and isoleucine for DCM. This work lays the basis for mechanistically understanding the progression from acute VMC to DCM, and is beneficial to exploitation of potential biomarkers for prognosis and diagnosis of heart diseases.

Giuseppe Lapergola ◽  
Alessandro Graziosi ◽  
Ebe D’Adamo ◽  
Patrizia Brindisino ◽  
Mariangela Ferrari ◽  

Abstract Recent advances in perioperative management of adult and pediatric patients requiring open heart surgery (OHS) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for cardiac and/or congenital heart diseases repair allowed a significant reduction in the mortality rate. Conversely morbidity rate pattern has a flat trend. Perioperative period is crucial since OHS and CPB are widely accepted as a deliberate hypoxic-ischemic reperfusion damage representing the cost to pay at a time when standard of care monitoring procedures can be silent or unavailable. In this respect, the measurement of neuro-biomarkers (NB), able to detect at early stage perioperative brain damage could be especially useful. In the last decade, among a series of NB, S100B protein has been investigated. After the first promising results, supporting the usefulness of the protein as predictor of short/long term adverse neurological outcome, the protein has been progressively abandoned due to a series of limitations. In the present review we offer an up-dated overview of the main S100B pros and cons in the peri-operative monitoring of adult and pediatric patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Slobodan Vukicevic ◽  
Andrea Colliva ◽  
Vera Kufner ◽  
Valentina Martinelli ◽  
Silvia Moimas ◽  

AbstractDespite the high prevalence of ischemic heart diseases worldwide, no antibody-based treatment currently exists. Starting from the evidence that a specific isoform of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1.3) is particularly elevated in both patients and animal models of myocardial infarction, here we assess whether its inhibition by a specific monoclonal antibody reduces cardiac fibrosis. We find that this treatment reduces collagen deposition and cross-linking, paralleled by enhanced cardiomyocyte survival, both in vivo and in primary cultures of cardiac cells. Mechanistically, we show that the anti-BMP1.3 monoclonal antibody inhibits Transforming Growth Factor β pathway, thus reducing myofibroblast activation and inducing cardioprotection through BMP5. Collectively, these data support the therapeutic use of anti-BMP1.3 antibodies to prevent cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reduce collagen deposition and preserve cardiac function after ischemia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jianxia Wen ◽  
Mingjie Li ◽  
Wenwen Zhang ◽  
Haoyu Wang ◽  
Yan Bai ◽  

Higenamine, a natural product with multiple targets in heart diseases, is originally derived from Aconitum, which has been traditionally used in China for the treatment of heart disease, including heart failure, arrhythmia, bradycardia, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, cardiac fibrosis, etc. This study is aimed to clarify the role of higenamine in heart diseases. Higenamine has effects on improving energy metabolism of cardiomyocytes, anti-cardiac fibroblast activation, anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptosis. Accumulating evidence from various studies has shown that higenamine exerts a wide range of cardiovascular pharmacological effects in vivo and in vitro, including alleviating heart failure, reducing cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, attenuating pathological cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction. In addition, several clinical studies have reported that higenamine could continuously increase the heart rate levels of healthy volunteers as well as patients with heart disease, but there are variable effects on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Moreover, the heart protection and therapeutic effects of higenamine on heart disease are related to regulating LKB1/AMPKα/Sirt1, mediating the β2-AR/PI3K/AKT cascade, induction of heme oxygenase-1, suppressing TGF-β1/Smad signaling, and targeting ASK1/MAPK (ERK, P38)/NF-kB signaling pathway. However, the interventional effects of higenamine on heart disease and its underlying mechanisms based on experimental studies have not yet been systematically reviewed. This paper reviewed the potential pharmacological mechanisms of higenamine on the prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of heart disease and clarified its clinical applications. The literature shows that higenamine may have a potent effect on complex heart diseases, and proves the profound medicinal value of higenamine in heart disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Romil Singh ◽  
Sawai Singh Rathore ◽  
Hira Khan ◽  
Abhishek Bhurwal ◽  
Mack Sheraton ◽  

Purpose: The primary objective of this systematic review is to assess association of mortality in COVID-19 patients on Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and Angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs). A secondary objective is to assess associations with higher severity of the disease in COVID-19 patients.Materials and Methods: We searched multiple COVID-19 databases (WHO, CDC, LIT-COVID) for longitudinal studies globally reporting mortality and severity published before January 18th, 2021. Meta-analyses were performed using 53 studies for mortality outcome and 43 for the severity outcome. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were generated to describe overall effect size using random effect models. To account for between study results variations, multivariate meta-regression was performed with preselected covariates using maximum likelihood method for both the mortality and severity models.Result: Our findings showed that the use of ACEIs/ARBs did not significantly influence either mortality (OR = 1.16 95% CI 0.94–1.44, p = 0.15, I2 = 93.2%) or severity (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 0.94–1.48, p = 0.15, I2 = 91.1%) in comparison to not being on ACEIs/ARBs in COVID-19 positive patients. Multivariate meta-regression for the mortality model demonstrated that 36% of between study variations could be explained by differences in age, gender, and proportion of heart diseases in the study samples. Multivariate meta-regression for the severity model demonstrated that 8% of between study variations could be explained by differences in age, proportion of diabetes, heart disease and study country in the study samples.Conclusion: We found no association of mortality or severity in COVID-19 patients taking ACEIs/ARBs.

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