Activated Sludge
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AMB Express ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Jing Lu ◽  
Yiguo Hong ◽  
Ying Wei ◽  
Ji-Dong Gu ◽  
Jiapeng Wu ◽  

AbstractAnaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process has been acknowledged as an environmentally friendly and time-saving technique capable of achieving efficient nitrogen removal. However, the community of nitrification process in anammox-inoculated wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has not been elucidated. In this study, ammonia oxidation (AO) and nitrite oxidation (NO) rates were analyzed with the incubation of activated sludge from Xinfeng WWTPs (Taiwan, China), and the community composition of nitrification communities were investigated by high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that both AO and NO had strong activity in the activated sludge. The average rates of AO and NO in sample A were 6.51 µmol L−1 h−1 and 6.52 µmol L−1 h−1, respectively, while the rates in sample B were 14.48 µmol L−1 h−1 and 14.59 µmol L−1 h−1, respectively. The abundance of the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) Nitrospira was 0.89–4.95 × 1011 copies/g in both samples A and B, the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was 1.01–9.74 × 109 copies/g. In contrast, the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) was much lower than AOB, only with 1.28–1.53 × 105 copies/g in samples A and B. The AOA community was dominated by Nitrosotenuis, Nitrosocosmicus, and Nitrososphaera, while the AOB community mainly consisted of Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus. The dominant species of Nitrospira were Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii, Candidatus Nitrospira Ecomare2 and Nitrospira inopinata. In summary, the strong nitrification activity was mainly catalyzed by AOB and Nitrospira, maintaining high efficiency in nitrogen removal in the anammox-inoculated WWTPs by providing the substrates required for denitrification and anammox processes.

Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1413
Jiseon Kim ◽  
Chong Min Chung ◽  
Kangwoo Cho ◽  
Tai Hak Chung

Molecular hydrogen (H2), as the green energy carrier from water electrolysis, can be utilized for separation of suspended micro-particles as electroflotation (EF). This study provides practical guidelines for the gas to solids (G/S) ratio as the governing parameter in EF, based on theoretical estimations and experiments for clarification of activated sludge. The G/S ratio in EF was controlled linearly by current density (j), under quasi-consistent current efficiency (at j > 8 mA/cm2) for H2 (~1) and O2 (~0.4) bubble generations on Ti cathode and IrTaOx anode, respectively. Based on the measured sizes of bubbles (approximated to 35 µm) and biological flocs (discretized to mean sizes of 22.5, 40, 60, 135, and 150 µm), batch flotation experiments estimated the maximum collision-attachment efficiency of 0.057. The rise velocities of floc-bubble aggregate were computed to derive the limiting G/S ratio to overcome the given influent hydraulic loading. Consequently, the estimates (5.23 × 10−4 and 5.92 × 10−4 at hydraulic loading of 0.87 and 1.73 cm/min, respectively) were compatible with the continuous EF experiments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 586-606
Nkanyiso Celukuthula Nkosi ◽  
Albertus K. Basson ◽  
Zuzingcebo G. Ntombela ◽  
Tsolanku S. Maliehe ◽  
Rajasekhar V. S. R. Pullabhotla

The low microbial flocculant yields and efficiencies limit their industrial applications. There is a need to identify bacteria with high bioflocculant production. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify a bioflocculant-producing bacterium from activated sludge wastewater and characterise its bioflocculant activity. The identification of the isolated bacterium was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The optimal medium composition (carbon and nitrogen sources, cations and inoculum size) and culture conditions (temperature, pH, shaking speed and time) were evaluated by the one-factor-at-a-time method. The morphology, functional groups, crystallinity and pyrolysis profile of the bioflocculant were analysed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis. The bacterium was identified as Proteus mirabilis AB 932526.1. Its optimal medium and culture conditions were: sucrose (20 g/L), yeast extract (1.2 g/L), MnCl2 (1 g/L), pH 6, 30 °C, inoculation volume (3%), shaking speed (120 rpm) for 72 h of cultivation. SEM micrograph revealed the bioflocculant to be amorphous. FTIR analysis indicated the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino groups. The bioflocculant was completely pyrolyzed at temperatures above 800 °C. The bacterium has potential to produce bioflocculant of industrial importance.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 2054
Dan Selișteanu ◽  
Ion-Marian Popescu ◽  
Monica Roman ◽  
Constantin Șulea-Iorgulescu ◽  
Sorin Mehedințeanu

The design and implementation of a simulator, as a real-time application, for a complex process from the biological treatment stage of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), is addressed. More precisely, this emulator was achieved as a software tool that can be later integrated into a more complex SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system of the WWTP Făcăi, Romania. The basic idea is to implement and validate a reduced-order model of the activated sludge process (ASP), initially simulated in the Matlab/Simulink environment (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA). Moreover, an advanced multivariable adaptive control scheme of the ASP is addressed. This software tool can be made to work in parallel with the evolution of the process and can have as input signals measured directly at the process level, possibly following parametric or model adaptations. The software emulator is developed in the LabWindows/CVI programming environment (National Instruments), which offers low-level access to hardware or software systems that have minimal open-architecture facilities. This environment provides versatile drivers and software packages that can facilitate the interaction with software tools developed within some earlier SCADA systems. The structure and the graphical interface of the emulator, some functionalities, experiments, and evolution of main variables are presented.

2021 ◽  
Kang Li ◽  
Yanzehua Liu ◽  
Yangda Li ◽  
Dan Li ◽  
Na Liu ◽  

Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly hard-biodegradable compounds. Therefore, in this work, a multisubstrate enrichment approach was proposed to develop a bacterial community named MBF from activated sludge of coking wastewater plant capable of degrading mixed-PAHs consisting of phenanthrene and pyrene (50 mg/L of each) by 98.8% and 73.3% within 5 days, respectively. The bacterial community could maintain its degradation ability to mixed PAHs relatively under temperatures (20°C–35°C), pH values (5.0–9.0), and salinities (0–10 g/L NaCl). Additionally, the bacterial community MBF degraded 58.9%, 79.9%, and 80.7% of mixed PAHs in the presence of catechol, salicylic acid, and phthalic acid, respectively within 5 days. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis showed that the bacterial community MBF was dominated by Pseudomonas in most treatments, and Burkholderia was predominant under both acidic condition and high salt concentrations. Furthermore, the composition of microbial communities of the bacterial community was significantly different with/without addition of pathway intermediate metabolites after biodegradation of mixed PAHs, revealing the metabolic burden may be distributed between members of this bacterial community. Those results demonstrate that the biodegradation ability of MBF could be maintained with the bacterial community structure altering when facing environmental variations or changes in composition of target contaminants.

Membranes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 875
Nur Izzati Zaenuddin ◽  
Muhammad Roil Bilad ◽  
Lisendra Marbelia ◽  
Wiratni Budhijanto ◽  
Nasrul Arahman ◽  

Tapioca processing industries are very popular in the rural community to produce a variety of foods as the end products. Due to their small scales and scattered locations, they require robust modular systems to operate at low capacity with minimum supervision. This study explores the application of a novel sequencing batch-integrated fixed-film activated sludge membrane (SB-IFASM) process to treat tapioca processing wastewater for reuse purposes. The SB-IFASM employed a gravity-driven system and utilizes biofilm to enhance biodegradation without requiring membrane cleaning. The SB-IFASM utilizes the biofilm as a secondary biodegradation stage to enhance the permeate quality applicable for reuse. A lab-scale SB-IFASM was developed, preliminarily assessed, and used to treat synthetic tapioca processing industry wastewater. The results of short-term filtration tests showed the significant impact of hydrostatic pressure on membrane compaction and instant cake layer formation. Increasing the pressure from 2.2 to 10 kPa lowered the permeability of clean water and activated sludge from 720 to 425 and from 110 to 50 L/m2·h bar, respectively. The unsteady-state operation of the SB-IFASM showed the prominent role of the bio-cake in removing the organics reaching the permeate quality suitable for reuse. High COD removals of 63–98% demonstrated the prominence contribution of the biofilm in enhancing biological performance and ultimate COD removals of >93% make it very attractive for application in small-scale tapioca processing industries. However, the biological ecosystem was unstable, as shown by foaming that deteriorated permeability and was detrimental to the organic removal. Further developments are still required, particularly to address the biological stability and low permeability.

Gayatri Gawande ◽  
Rucha Dandekar ◽  
Omparv Channa ◽  
Harshali Birari ◽  

Membrane Bioreactors have proved to be a useful alternative to conventional activated sludge systems for wastewater treatment. Merits of membrane bioreactors include more compact design saving a significant amount of space and lower sludge production due to longer sludge retention time. This system unfortunately has a downside with it comes to excessive foaming. Membrane bioreactors often act as foam traps leading to overflowing, wastage of sludge and difficulty in process control. Pre-Treatment of wastewater has proven to significantly reduce foaming caused by surfactants. Generally, physical methods are considered more economical and operationally convenient compared to conventional techniques including chemical treatment and advanced techniques like biological treatment. Polyaluminium chloride as a coagulant is recommended as a chemical treatment due to economic and effectiveness considerations. It has been concluded that the remedies for foaming issue are case specific and should be determined by the causes of foaming. This paper aims at reviewing techniques to analyse the foaming phenomenon, causes of foaming and its remedies to manage or eliminate foam.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 3222
Ioannis Stavrakakis ◽  
Nikolaos Remmas ◽  
Paraschos Melidis ◽  
Spyridon Ntougias

In this work, the metabolic uncoupler para-nitrophenol (pNP) was applied to suppress excess sludge production and to investigate its effects on the system’s performance and activated sludge community structure. The COD removal efficiency decreased from 99.0% to 89.5% prior to and after pNP addition, respectively. Application of pNP transiently reduced NH4+-N, NO3−-N and NO2−-N removal efficiencies, suggesting partial inhibition of both nitrifying and denitrifying activity. However, no changes in the relative abundance of the nitrifying bacteria occurred. Phosphorus removal efficiency was sharply reduced after pNP addition, as the consequence of hydrolysis of stored cell reserves. Tetrasphaera, a key polyphosphate accumulating organism, was also affected by the addition of pNP, a fact that highly influenced system’s ability to remove phosphorus. A drastic drop in Soluble Microbial Products (SMP) and Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) was also detected shortly after the introduction of the uncoupler. On the other hand, MBR’s physicochemical parameters were restored to initial values a week after the addition of pNP. Moreover, remarkable changes in beta-diversity were noted after pNP addition. An increase of Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes over Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria was also observed after pNP addition.

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