extracellular polymeric substances
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Geoderma ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 410 ◽  
pp. 115650
Di Zhu ◽  
Ming Zhang ◽  
Jinzhao Chen ◽  
Monika Mortimer ◽  
Yichao Wu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Meisam Nazari ◽  
Samuel Bickel ◽  
Pascal Benard ◽  
Kyle Mason-Jones ◽  
Andrea Carminati ◽  

Mucilage is a gelatinous high-molecular-weight substance produced by almost all plants, serving numerous functions for plant and soil. To date, research has mainly focused on hydraulic and physical functions of mucilage in the rhizosphere. Studies on the relevance of mucilage as a microbial habitat are scarce. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are similarly gelatinous high-molecular-weight substances produced by microorganisms. EPS support the establishment of microbial assemblages in soils, mainly through providing a moist environment, a protective barrier, and serving as carbon and nutrient sources. We propose that mucilage shares physical and chemical properties with EPS, functioning similarly as a biofilm matrix covering a large extent of the rhizosphere. Our analyses found no evidence of consistent differences in viscosity and surface tension between EPS and mucilage, these being important physical properties. With regard to chemical composition, polysaccharide, protein, neutral monosaccharide, and uronic acid composition also showed no consistent differences between these biogels. Our analyses and literature review suggest that all major functions known for EPS and required for biofilm formation are also provided by mucilage, offering a protected habitat optimized for nutrient mobilization. Mucilage enables high rhizo-microbial abundance and activity by functioning as carbon and nutrient source. We suggest that the role of mucilage as a biofilm matrix has been underestimated, and should be considered in conceptual models of the rhizosphere.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 218
Tiow Ping Wong ◽  
Roger W. Babcock ◽  
Theodore Uekawa ◽  
Joachim Schneider ◽  
Bing Hu

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) reportedly make up approximately half of the organic matter in activated sludge (AS), and therefore strongly influence AS properties. This study evaluated the component fractions of EPS normalized to volatile suspended solids (VSS) in waste activated sludge (WAS) from a trickling-filter-solids contact process (TF/SC) and its ability to biosorb organic matter from raw wastewater with 30 min of contact time. Biosorption is the process in which organic matter (carbohydrates, proteins, humic acids, DNA, uronic acids, and lipids) in a sorbate, such as raw wastewater, sorbs onto a sorbent such as WAS. A statistically significant correlation was found between both the total concentration of EPS and the proteins component of the EPS and the biosorption removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and truly soluble COD (ffCOD). Thus, the biosorption of soluble forms of COD can accurately be predicted by quantifying just the amount of proteins in WAS-associated EPS. No significant correlations were found for the biosorption of colloidal COD (cCOD). WAS biosorbed 45–75 mg L−1 of COD in 30 min. WAS absorbed or stored the proteins fraction of the soluble microbial products (SMP) during the biosorption process. Higher concentrations of humic acids were found in the biosorption process effluent than in the untreated wastewater, which warrants further study. Longer cation exchange resin (CER) extraction times yielded more total EPS from the sludge: 90 ± 9, 158 ± 3, and 316 ± 44 mg g−1 VSS, for 45-min, 4-h, and 24-h extraction times, respectively. Thus, EPS extracted represented only 9%, 15.8%, and 31.6% of the VSS, respectively, raising questions about whether the accurate characterization of EPS can be performed using the typical extraction time of 45 min due to different extraction rates for different components. It was found that the humic acids fraction was extracted much more slowly than the other fractions.

Zhang Ye ◽  
Dina M. Silva ◽  
Daniela Traini ◽  
Paul Young ◽  
Shaokoon Cheng ◽  

Abstract Biofilms are ubiquitous and notoriously difficult to eradicate and control, complicating human infections and industrial and agricultural biofouling. However, most of the study had used the biofilm model that attached to solid surface and developed in liquid submerged environments which generally have neglected the impact of interfaces. In our study, a reusable dual-chamber microreactor with interchangeable porous membranes was developed to establish multiple growth interfaces for biofilm culture and test. Protocol for culturing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) on the air–liquid interface (ALI) and liquid–liquid interface (LLI) under static environmental conditions for 48 h was optimized using this novel device. This study shows that LLI model biofilms are more susceptible to physical disruption compared to ALI model biofilm. SEM images revealed a unique “dome-shaped” microcolonies morphological feature, which is more distinct on ALI biofilms than LLI. Furthermore, the study showed that ALI and LLI biofilms produced a similar amount of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As differences in biofilm structure and properties may lead to different outcomes when using the same eradication approaches, the antimicrobial effect of an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CIP), was chosen to test the susceptibility of a 48-h-old P. aeruginosa biofilms grown on ALI and LLI. Our results show that the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of 6-h CIP exposure for ALI and LLI biofilms is significantly different, which are 400 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL, respectively. These results highlight the importance of growth interface when developing more targeted biofilm management strategies, and our novel device provides a promising tool that enables manipulation of realistic biofilm growth. Key points • A novel dual-chamber microreactor device that enables the establishment of different interfaces for biofilm culture has been developed. • ALI model biofilms and LLI model biofilms show differences in resistance to physical disruption and antibiotic susceptibility.

Eunice A. Ferreira ◽  
Catarina C. Pacheco ◽  
João S. Rodrigues ◽  
Filipe Pinto ◽  
Pedro Lamosa ◽  

Among compatible solutes, glycine betaine has various applications in the fields of nutrition, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Currently, this compound can be extracted from sugar beet plants or obtained by chemical synthesis, resulting in low yields or high carbon footprint, respectively. Hence, in this work we aimed at exploring the production of glycine betaine using the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a photoautotrophic chassis. Synechocystis mutants lacking the native compatible solutes sucrose or/and glucosylglycerol—∆sps, ∆ggpS, and ∆sps∆ggpS—were generated and characterized. Under salt stress conditions, the growth was impaired and accumulation of glycogen decreased by ∼50% whereas the production of compatible solutes and extracellular polymeric substances (capsular and released ones) increased with salinity. These mutants were used as chassis for the implementation of a synthetic device based on the metabolic pathway described for the halophilic cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica for the production of the compatible solute glycine betaine. Transcription of ORFs comprising the device was shown to be stable and insulated from Synechocystis’ native regulatory network. Production of glycine betaine was achieved in all chassis tested, and was shown to increase with salinity. The introduction of the glycine betaine synthetic device into the ∆ggpS background improved its growth and enabled survival under 5% NaCl, which was not observed in the absence of the device. The maximum glycine betaine production [64.29 µmol/gDW (1.89 µmol/mg protein)] was reached in the ∆ggpS chassis grown under 3% NaCl. Taking into consideration this production under seawater-like salinity, and the identification of main key players involved in the carbon fluxes, this work paves the way for a feasible production of this, or other compatible solutes, using optimized Synechocystis chassis in a pilot-scale.

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