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2022 ◽  
Vol 154 ◽  
pp. 111895
Hadis Marami ◽  
Li He ◽  
Shahin Rafiee ◽  
Benyamin Khoshnevisan ◽  
Panagiotis Tsapekos ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Paul Jankowski ◽  
Jaydon Gan ◽  
Tri Le ◽  
Michaela McKennitt ◽  
Audrey Garcia ◽  

Abstract Background Wastewater treatment plants are an essential part of maintaining the health and safety of the general public. However, they are also an anthropogenic source of antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, we characterized the resistome, the distribution of classes 1–3 integron-integrase genes (intI1, intI2, and intI3) as mobile genetic element biomarkers, and the bacterial and phage community compositions in the North End Sewage Treatment Plant in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Samples were collected from raw sewage, returned activated sludge, final effluent, and dewatered sludge. A total of 28 bacterial and viral metagenomes were sequenced over two seasons, fall and winter. Integron-integrase genes, the 16S rRNA gene, and the coliform beta-glucuronidase gene were also quantified during this time period. Results Bacterial classes observed above 1% relative abundance in all treatments were Actinobacteria (39.24% ± 0.25%), Beta-proteobacteria (23.99% ± 0.16%), Gamma-proteobacteria (11.06% ± 0.09%), and Alpha-proteobacteria (9.18 ± 0.04%). Families within the Caudovirales order: Siphoviridae (48.69% ± 0.10%), Podoviridae (23.99% ± 0.07%), and Myoviridae (19.94% ± 0.09%) were the dominant phage observed throughout the NESTP. The most abundant bacterial genera (in terms of average percent relative abundance) in influent, returned activated sludge, final effluent, and sludge, respectively, includes Mycobacterium (37.4%, 18.3%, 46.1%, and 7.7%), Acidovorax (8.9%, 10.8%, 5.4%, and 1.3%), and Polaromonas (2.5%, 3.3%, 1.4%, and 0.4%). The most abundant class of antibiotic resistance in bacterial samples was tetracycline resistance (17.86% ± 0.03%) followed by peptide antibiotics (14.24% ± 0.03%), and macrolides (10.63% ± 0.02%). Similarly, the phage samples contained a higher prevalence of macrolide (30.12% ± 0.30%), peptide antibiotic (10.78% ± 0.13%), and tetracycline (8.69% ± 0.11%) resistance. In addition, intI1 was the most abundant integron-integrase gene throughout treatment (1.14 × 104 gene copies/mL) followed by intI3 (4.97 × 103 gene copies/mL) while intI2 abundance remained low (6.4 × 101 gene copies/mL). Conclusions Wastewater treatment successfully reduced the abundance of bacteria, DNA phage and antibiotic resistance genes although many antibiotic resistance genes remained in effluent and biosolids. The presence of integron-integrase genes throughout treatment and in effluent suggests that antibiotic resistance genes could be actively disseminating resistance between both environmental and pathogenic bacteria.

Mohieldeen M. A. Ahmed ◽  
Mohammed H. M. Gaily ◽  
Khalid M.O. Ortashi ◽  
Omer M.A. Al Ghabshawi ◽  
Nagwa F. Bashir ◽  

Hydrogen sulphide is a toxic gas, it can cause a range of physiological responses from simple annoyance to permanent injury and death. There are a number of approaches to deal with the impacts of toxic gases. This study focused on minimizing the hazard exposure for hydrogen sulfide in the different operational zones for activated sludge process in sewage waterplant. Research tools/ approaches conducted were interviews, toxic gas testers, analysis report interpretation &amp; quantitative risk assessment method. The study was conducted on Arabian Peninsula during the period (September 2019- September 2021). The (13) operational locations tested for toxic gas concentrations were inlet chamber, outlet channel, coarse /fine screens, primary sedimentation tank, activated sludge tanks, secondary sedimentation tanks, gas desulfurization unit, disc filters, chlorine dosing unit, sludge dewatering, sludge silos and digester tanks. The study found that the highest concentration for H<sub>2</sub>S in the inlet chamber/ outlet channel. The severity hazards in the sewage treatment plant using activated sludge process are the asphyxiation by H<sub>2</sub>S was extremely high can cause harm to public health, followed by the radiation hazard followed by electrical hazard, then (working at height, mechanical, traffic, health, chemical, physical, ergonomic, environmental, microbial and natural). The frequency of hazards occurrence is asphyxiation by H<sub>2</sub>S was extremely high followed by the radiation hazard and health hazard including the infection with Covid 19 virus followed by mechanical hazard then (electrical, traffic, ergonomic, natural, chemical, physical and natural). Control measures were recommended to minimize the risk of asphyxiation by H<sub>2</sub>S in the working environment at the STP.

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