microbial interactions
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2022 ◽  
Gayathri Sambamoorthy ◽  
Karthik Raman

Microbes thrive in communities, embedded in a complex web of interactions. These interactions, particularly metabolic interactions, play a crucial role in maintaining the community structure and function. As the organisms thrive and evolve, a variety of evolutionary processes alter the interactions among the organisms in the community, although the community function remains intact. In this work, we simulate the evolution of two-member microbial communities in silico to study how evolutionary forces can shape the interactions between organisms. We employ genomescale metabolic models of organisms from the human gut, which exhibit a range of interaction patterns, from mutualism to parasitism. We observe that the evolution of microbial interactions varies depending upon the starting interaction and also on the metabolic capabilities of the organisms in the community. We find that evolutionary constraints play a significant role in shaping the dependencies of organisms in the community. Evolution of microbial communities yields fitness benefits in only a small fraction of the communities, and is also dependent on the interaction type of the wild-type communities. The metabolites cross-fed in the wild-type communities appear in only less than 50% of the evolved communities. A wide range of new metabolites are cross-fed as the communities evolve. Further, the dynamics of microbial interactions are not specific to the interaction of the wild-type community but vary depending on the organisms present in the community. Our approach of evolving microbial communities in silico provides an exciting glimpse of the dynamics of microbial interactions and offers several avenues for future investigations.

2022 ◽  
Lauren Anton ◽  
Briana Ferguson ◽  
Elliot S. Friedman ◽  
Kristin Gerson ◽  
Amy G. Brown ◽  

Abstract Background: The cervicovaginal (CV) microbiome is highly associated with vaginal health and disease in both pregnant and non-pregnant individuals. An overabundance of Gardnerella vaginalis in the CV space is commonly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes including bacterial vaginosis (BV), sexually transmitted diseases and preterm birth while the presence of Lactobacillus spp is often associated with reproductive health. While host-microbial interactions are hypothesized to contribute to CV health and disease, the mechanisms by which these interactions regulate CV epithelial function remain largely unknown. Results: Using an in vitro co-culture model, we assessed the effects of Lactobacillus crispatus and G. vaginalis on the CV epithelial barrier, the immune mediators that could be contributing to decreased barrier integrity and the immune signaling pathways regulating the immune response. G. vaginalis, but not L. crispatus, significantly increased epithelial cell death and decreased epithelial barrier integrity in an epithelial cell-specific manner. A G. vaginalis-mediated epithelial immune response including NFkB activation and proinflammatory cytokine release was initiated partially through TLR2 dependent signaling pathways. Additionally, investigation of the cytokine immune profile in human CV fluid showed distinctive clustering of cytokines by G. vaginalis abundance and birth outcome. Conclusions: The results of this study show both microbe- and epithelial cell-type specific effects on CV epithelial function. Altered epithelial barrier function through cell death and immune mediated mechanisms by G. vaginalis, but not L. crispatus, indicates that host epithelial cells respond to bacteria-associated signals, resulting in altered epithelial function and ultimately CV disease. Additionally, distinct immune signatures associated with G. vaginalis or birth outcome provide further evidence that host-microbial interactions may contribute significantly to the biological mechanisms regulating reproductive outcomes.

GCB Bioenergy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Stephanie M. Juice ◽  
Christopher A. Walter ◽  
Kara E. Allen ◽  
Danielle M. Berardi ◽  
Tara W. Hudiburg ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ubair Nisar ◽  
Daomin Peng ◽  
Yongtong Mu ◽  
Yu Sun

Biofloc technology (BFT) is gaining traction as a strategic aquaculture tool for boosting feed conversions, biosecurity, and wastewater recycling. The significant aspect of BFT is aquaculture with highest stocking density and minimal water exchange. It not only improves the water quality of a system by removing inorganic nitrogen from wastewater but also serves as a suitable feed supplement and probiotic source for cultured species. This technology is commonly used for shrimp and tilapia culture and can be used for both semi-intensive and intensive culture systems. Biofloc, when combined with formulated diets, forms a balanced food chain that improves growth performance. Nutrients in this system are continuously recycled and reused and form an efficient alternative system in aquaculture. In addition to the reduction in water exchange, it is also considered as a bio-security measure, since it prevents entry of disease from outside sources. Aquamimicry is an innovative concept that simulates natural estuarine conditions by developing copepods that act as supplementary nutrition especially for shrimp culture. The review highlights the process, significance, and development of BFT, its microbial interactions, nutritional value, transition from biofloc to copefloc, and concept of aquamimicry to sustainably improve aquaculture production.

2022 ◽  
Carlos N Lozano-Andrade ◽  
Carla G Nogueira ◽  
Mario Wibowo ◽  
Akos T Kovacs

Bacterial secondary metabolites are structurally diverse molecules that drive microbial interaction by altering growth, cell differentiation, and signaling. Bacillus subtilis, a Gram-positive soil-dwelling bacterium, produces a wealth of secondary metabolites, among them, lipopeptides have been vastly studied by their antimicrobial, antitumor, and surfactant activities. However, the natural functions of secondary metabolites in the lifestyles of the producing organism remain less explored under natural conditions, i.e. in soil. Here, we describe a hydrogel-based transparent soil system to investigate B. subtilis chemical ecology under controllable soil-like conditions. The transparent soil matrix allows the growth of B. subtilis and other isolates gnotobiotically and under nutrient-controlled conditions. Additionally, we show that transparent soil allows the detection of lipopeptides production and dynamics by HPLC-MS and MALDI-MS imaging, along with fluorescence imaging of 3-dimensional bacterial assemblages. We anticipate that this affordable and highly controllable system will promote bacterial chemical ecology research and help to elucidate microbial interactions driven by secondary metabolites.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 88
Irene Adamo ◽  
Svetlana Dashevskaya ◽  
Josu G. Alday

Forest restoration has become one of the most important challenges for restoration ecology in the recent years. In this regard, soil fungi are fundamental drivers of forest ecosystem processes, with significant implications for plant growth and survival. However, the post-disturbance recovery of belowground communities has been rarely assessed, especially in highly degraded systems such as mines. Our aim was to compare forests and mined systems for biomass and structure of fungal communities in soil during early stages of tree establishment after disturbance. We performed ergosterol analysis and PacBio and Illumina sequencing of internal transcribed spacer 2 amplicons across soil layers in P. sylvestris, Q. robur and Q. ilex (holm oak) forests and naturally revegetated mined sites. In pine forests, total fungal biomass was significantly higher in litter and humus compared to mineral layers, with dominance of the mycorrhizal genera Tomentella, Inocybe and Tricholoma. Conversely, in oak forests the most abundant mycorrhizal genera were Tomentella, Cortinarius and Sebacina, but the biomass of saprotrophic fungi was greater in the litter layer compared to mycorrhizal fungi, with the genus Preussia being the most abundant. In the revegetated mined sites, ectomycorrhizal fungi dominated in the humus and mineral layers, with the mycorrhizal genus Oidiodendron being dominant. In contrast, in holm oak forests saprotrophic fungi dominated both soil humus and mineral layers, with the genera of Alternaria, Bovista and Mycena dominating the soil humus forest layer, while the genus Cadophora dominated the mineral layer. The habitat-specific differences in soil fungal community composition and putative functions suggest that an understanding of soil–plant–microbial interactions for different tree species and use of specific soil/litter inoculum upon planting/seeding might help to increase the effectiveness of tree restoration strategies in Mediterranean degraded sites.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 128
Nataliya E. Suzina ◽  
Andrey V. Machulin ◽  
Vladimir V. Sorokin ◽  
Valentina N. Polivtseva ◽  
Tatiana Z. Esikova ◽  

Microbial interactions play an important role in natural habitat. The long-term coevolution of various species leads to the adaptation of certain types of microorganisms as well as to the formation of a wide variety of interactions such as competitive, antagonistic, pathogenic and parasitic relationships. The aim of this work is a comprehensive study of a new ultramicrobacterium Microbacterium lacticum str. F2E, isolated from perennial oil sludge, which is characterized by high antimicrobial activity and a unique ultrastructural organization of the cell envelope, which includes globular surface ultrastructures with a high negative charge. A previously undescribed mechanism for the antagonistic action of the F2E strain against the prey bacterium is proposed. This mechanism is based on the ability to preferentially capture essential microelements, in which charge interactions and the property of phosphate accumulation may play a significant role. The revealed type of intermicrobial interaction can probably be attributed to the non-contact type antagonistic action in the absence of any diffuse factor secreted by the antagonistic bacteria.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ziyuan Jiang ◽  
Jiajin Li ◽  
Nahyun Kong ◽  
Jeong-Hyun Kim ◽  
Bong-Soo Kim ◽  

AbstractAtopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease in childhood whose diagnosis requires expertise in dermatology. Recent studies have indicated that host genes–microbial interactions in the gut contribute to human diseases including AD. We sought to develop an accurate and automated pipeline for AD diagnosis based on transcriptome and microbiota data. Using these data of 161 subjects including AD patients and healthy controls, we trained a machine learning classifier to predict the risk of AD. We found that the classifier could accurately differentiate subjects with AD and healthy individuals based on the omics data with an average F1-score of 0.84. With this classifier, we also identified a set of 35 genes and 50 microbiota features that are predictive for AD. Among the selected features, we discovered at least three genes and three microorganisms directly or indirectly associated with AD. Although further replications in other cohorts are needed, our findings suggest that these genes and microbiota features may provide novel biological insights and may be developed into useful biomarkers of AD prediction.

2022 ◽  
Zongjun Li ◽  
Xiangnan Wang ◽  
Yu Zhang ◽  
Zhongtang Yu ◽  
Tingting Zhang ◽  

Understanding the biodiversity and genetics of the gut microbiome has important implications for host physiology. One underexplored and elusive group is ciliated protozoa, which play crucial roles in regulating gut microbial interactions. Integrating single-cell sequencing and an assembly-and-identification pipeline, we acquired 52 high-quality ciliate genomes of 22 rumen morphospecies for all major abundant clades. With these genomes, we firstly resolved the taxonomic and phylogenetic framework that reclassified them into 19 species spanning 13 genera and reassigned the genus Dasytricha from Isotrichidae to a new family Dasytrichidae. Via extensive horizontal gene transfer and gene family expansion, rumen ciliates possess a broad array of enzymes to synergistically degrade plant and microbial carbohydrates. In particular, ~80% of the degrading enzymes in Diplodiniinae and Ophryoscolecinae act on plant cell wall, and the high activities of their cellulase, xylanase and lysozyme reflect the potential of ciliate enzymes for biomass-conversion. Additionally, the new ciliate dataset greatly facilitated the rumen metagenomic analyses by allowing ~12% of reads to be classified.

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