relative abundance
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Attaullah ◽  
S. Gul ◽  
D. Bibi ◽  
A. Andaleeb ◽  
I. Ilahi ◽  
...  

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher’s Index (2.269) and Margalef’s Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 131-144
Author(s):  
Eliye Yahyapour ◽  
Masoumeh Shayanmehr ◽  
Behzad Miri ◽  
Reza Vafaei Shoushtari ◽  
◽  
...  

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
L. A. Can-Herrera ◽  
C. D. Gutierrez-Canul ◽  
M. A. A. Dzul-Cervantes ◽  
O. F. Pacheco-Salazar ◽  
J. D. Chi-Cortez ◽  
...  

Abstract Isla Arena is located in the coordinate 20° 70´ N - 90° 45´ W, from Campeche, Mexico. In these estuaries, the ocean mixes with fresh water, and ecosystems are concentrated where petenes and pink flamingos proliferate. Crustaceans and mollusks abound in the sea. Despite its enormous marine wealth, there are no studies carried out on which halophilic microorganisms are present in these waters. In this work, the diversity and structure of the microbial community was investigated through a metagenomics approach and corroborated for sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. It was found that the phylum Fimicutes predominates with more than 50%, in almost the same proportion of the class Bacilli and with almost 41% of relative abundance of the order Bacillales. The sequencing results showed that one of the samples presented a high percentage of similarity (99.75%) using the Nucleotide BLAST program with a peculiar microorganism: Bacillus subtilis. This microorganism is one of the best characterized bacteria among the gram-positive ones. Our results demonstrate that B. subtilis can be an efficient source of proteases, lipases and cellulases, from halophilic microbial communities located in poorly explored areas.


2022 ◽  
Vol 505 ◽  
pp. 119899
Author(s):  
Lindsay S. Millward ◽  
Todd M. Wilson ◽  
Matt J. Weldy ◽  
Mary M. Rowland ◽  
Adam Duarte ◽  
...  

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tamara Babic ◽  
Sandra Dragicevic ◽  
Marko Miladinov ◽  
Zoran Krivokapic ◽  
Aleksandra Nikolic

Abstract Background Transcripts with alternative 5′-untranslated regions (UTRs) result from the activity of alternative promoters and they can determine gene expression by influencing its stability and translational efficiency, thus executing complex regulation of developmental, physiological and pathological processes. Transcriptional regulation of human SMAD4, a key tumor suppressor deregulated in most gastrointestinal cancers, entails four alternative promoters. These promoters and alternative transcripts they generate remain unexplored as contributors to the SMAD4 deregulation in cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative abundance of the transcript SMAD4–201 in colorectal cell lines and tissues in order to establish if its fluctuations may be associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Relative abundance of SMAD4–201 in total SMAD4 mRNA was analyzed using quantitative PCR in a set of permanent human colon cell lines and tumor and corresponding healthy tissue samples from patients with CRC. Results The relative abundance of SMAD4–201 in analyzed cell lines varied between 16 and 47%. A similar relative abundance of SMAD4–201 transcript was found in the majority of analyzed human tumor tissue samples, and it was averagely 20% lower in non-malignant in comparison to malignant tissue samples (p = 0.001). Transcript SMAD4–202 was not detectable in any of the analyzed samples, so the observed fluctuations in the composition of SMAD4 transcripts can be attributed to transcripts other than SMAD4–201 and SMAD4–202. Conclusion The expression profile of SMAD4–201 in human tumor and non-tumor tissue samples may indicate the translational potential of this molecule in CRC, but further research is needed to clarify its usability as a potential biomarker for early diagnosis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Dongxue Zhang ◽  
Wenyan Liu ◽  
Li Peng ◽  
Haiyan Wang ◽  
Mei Lin ◽  
...  

Abstract Background To investigate the difference in the structural composition of salivary flora between chronic periodontitis patients with and without diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods Thirty salivary samples of 15 chronic periodontitis patients with DN (DN group) and 15 chronic periodontitis patients with diabetes but without DN (DM group) were subjected to pyrosequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16 s ribosomal RNA genes. After diversity testing, the differential flora were analyzed. The sequencing results were compared with GenBank database to determine the type of differential flora using species composition analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, principal co-ordinate analysis, and species difference analysis. Results There were significant between-group differences with respect to Gemella, Selenomonas spp, Lactobacillales_unclassified, Bacteria-unclassified and Abiotrophia (p < 0.05). Compared with DM group, the relative abundance of Selenomonas spp. in DN group was significantly higher; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of Selenomonas spp. was 0.713 (P < 0.05). Multi-level biological identification and feature maps indicated that Selenomonas spp. might be used as a potential biomarker for DN patients. On binary logistic regression analysis, increase of Selenomonas spp. was related with DN. Conclusions We found significant between-group differences in the structural composition of oral flora. The increase in the relative abundance of Selenomonas spp. may be associated with DN in patients with chronic periodontitis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Paul Jankowski ◽  
Jaydon Gan ◽  
Tri Le ◽  
Michaela McKennitt ◽  
Audrey Garcia ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Wastewater treatment plants are an essential part of maintaining the health and safety of the general public. However, they are also an anthropogenic source of antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, we characterized the resistome, the distribution of classes 1–3 integron-integrase genes (intI1, intI2, and intI3) as mobile genetic element biomarkers, and the bacterial and phage community compositions in the North End Sewage Treatment Plant in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Samples were collected from raw sewage, returned activated sludge, final effluent, and dewatered sludge. A total of 28 bacterial and viral metagenomes were sequenced over two seasons, fall and winter. Integron-integrase genes, the 16S rRNA gene, and the coliform beta-glucuronidase gene were also quantified during this time period. Results Bacterial classes observed above 1% relative abundance in all treatments were Actinobacteria (39.24% ± 0.25%), Beta-proteobacteria (23.99% ± 0.16%), Gamma-proteobacteria (11.06% ± 0.09%), and Alpha-proteobacteria (9.18 ± 0.04%). Families within the Caudovirales order: Siphoviridae (48.69% ± 0.10%), Podoviridae (23.99% ± 0.07%), and Myoviridae (19.94% ± 0.09%) were the dominant phage observed throughout the NESTP. The most abundant bacterial genera (in terms of average percent relative abundance) in influent, returned activated sludge, final effluent, and sludge, respectively, includes Mycobacterium (37.4%, 18.3%, 46.1%, and 7.7%), Acidovorax (8.9%, 10.8%, 5.4%, and 1.3%), and Polaromonas (2.5%, 3.3%, 1.4%, and 0.4%). The most abundant class of antibiotic resistance in bacterial samples was tetracycline resistance (17.86% ± 0.03%) followed by peptide antibiotics (14.24% ± 0.03%), and macrolides (10.63% ± 0.02%). Similarly, the phage samples contained a higher prevalence of macrolide (30.12% ± 0.30%), peptide antibiotic (10.78% ± 0.13%), and tetracycline (8.69% ± 0.11%) resistance. In addition, intI1 was the most abundant integron-integrase gene throughout treatment (1.14 × 104 gene copies/mL) followed by intI3 (4.97 × 103 gene copies/mL) while intI2 abundance remained low (6.4 × 101 gene copies/mL). Conclusions Wastewater treatment successfully reduced the abundance of bacteria, DNA phage and antibiotic resistance genes although many antibiotic resistance genes remained in effluent and biosolids. The presence of integron-integrase genes throughout treatment and in effluent suggests that antibiotic resistance genes could be actively disseminating resistance between both environmental and pathogenic bacteria.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhengyi Zhu ◽  
Glen A Satten ◽  
Yi-Juan Hu

We previously developed LDM for testing hypotheses about the microbiome that performs the test at both the community level and the individual taxon level. LDM can be applied to relative abundance data and presence-absence data separately, which work well when associated taxa are abundant and rare, respectively. Here we propose an omnibus test based on LDM that allows simultaneous consideration of data at different scales, thus offering optimal power across scenarios with different association mechanisms. The omnibus test is available for the wide range of data types and analyses that are supported by LDM. The omnibus test has been added to the R package LDM, which is available on GitHub at https://github.com/yijuanhu/LDM .


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 169
Author(s):  
Shiyu Zhang ◽  
Zhiyi Tang ◽  
Changbing Zheng ◽  
Yinzhao Zhong ◽  
Jie Zheng ◽  
...  

The present study is aimed to explore the effects of different dietary beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl butyrate (HMB) levels (0, 0.05%, 0.10%, or 0.15%) on liver lipid metabolism on Wenshi broiler chickens. Results showed that HMB reduced the liver weight as well as liver concentrations of triacylglycerol (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) (quadratically, p < 0.05), and the lowest values were observed in the 0.10% HMB group. Meanwhile, HMB supplementation significantly altered the expression levels of key genes related to lipid metabolism in the liver of broiler chickens (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that HMB supplementation could greatly change the richness, diversity, and composition of the broiler gut microbiota, and the Bacteroidetes relative abundance at the phylum level and the Alistipes relative abundance at the genus level were affected (p < 0.05). Correlation analysis further suggested a strong association between Bacteroidetes relative abundance and lipid metabolism-related parameters (p < 0.05). Together, these data suggest that 0.10% HMB supplementation could inhibit hepatic fat deposition via regulating gut microbiota in broilers.


Eos ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 103 ◽  
Author(s):  
Morgan Rehnberg

The relative abundance of different oxidation states for this important micronutrient varies on the basis of how much available sunlight there is.


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