measurement effects
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2021 ◽  
pp. 33-56
Barry Schouten ◽  
Jan van den Brakel ◽  
Bart Buelens ◽  
Deirdre Giesen ◽  
Annemieke Luiten ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (6) ◽  
pp. 585
Minghao Wu ◽  
Leen De Vos ◽  
Carlos Emilio Arboleda Chavez ◽  
Vasiliki Stratigaki ◽  
Maximilian Streicher ◽  

The present work introduces an analysis of the measurement and model effects that exist in monopile scour protection experiments with repeated small scale tests. The damage erosion is calculated using the three dimensional global damage number S3D and subarea damage number S3D,i. Results show that the standard deviation of the global damage number σ(S3D)=0.257 and is approximately 20% of the mean S3D, and the standard deviation of the subarea damage number σ(S3D,i)=0.42 which can be up to 33% of the mean S3D. The irreproducible maximum wave height, chaotic flow field and non-repeatable armour layer construction are regarded as the main reasons for the occurrence of strong model effects. The measurement effects are limited to σ(S3D)=0.039 and σ(S3D,i)=0.083, which are minor compared to the model effects.

Anouk Hubrechsen ◽  
Kate A. Remley ◽  
Robert D. Jones ◽  
Robert D. Horansky ◽  
Vincent T. Neylon ◽  

Abstract New protocols related to Internet-of-things applications may introduce previously unnoticed measurement effects in reverberation chambers (RCs) due to the narrowband nature of these protocols. Such technologies also require less loading to meet the coherence-bandwidth conditions, which may lead to higher variations, hence uncertainties, across the channel. In this work, we extend a previous study of uncertainty in NB-IoT and CAT-M1 device measurements in RCs by providing, for the first time, a comprehensive uncertainty analysis of the components related to the reference and DUT measurements. By use of a significance test, we show that certain components of uncertainty become more dominant for such narrowband protocols, and cannot be considered as negligible, as in current standardized test methods. We show that the uncertainty, if not accounted for by using the extended formulation, will be greatly overestimated and could lead to non-compliance to standards.

2020 ◽  
Bastiaan T Rutjens ◽  
Esther Niehoff ◽  
Steven Heine

Recent years have not only seen growing public distrust in science, but also in the people conducting science. Yet, attitudes toward scientists remain largely unexplored, and the limited body of literature that exists points to an interesting ambivalence. While survey data suggest scientists to be highly respected, research has found scientists to be perceived as capable of immoral behavior. We report two experiments aimed at identifying what contributes to this ambivalence through systematic investigations of stereotypical perceptions of scientists. In these studies, we particularly focus on two potential sources of inconsistencies in previous work: divergent operationalizations of morality (measurement effects), and different specifications of the broad group of scientists (framing effects). Results show that scientists are generally perceived as more likely to violate binding as opposed to individualizing moral foundations, and that they deviate from control groups more strongly on the latter. The extent to which different morality measures reflect the differentiation between binding and individualizing moral foundations at least partially accounts for previous contradictory findings. Moreover, the results indicate large variation in perceptions of different types of scientists: People hold more positive attitudes toward university-affiliated scientists as compared to industry-affiliated scientists, with perceptions of the ‘typical scientist’ more closely resembling the latter. Taken together, the findings have important academic ramifications for science skepticism, morality, and stereotyping research as well as valuable practical implications for successful science communication.

2019 ◽  
Vol 489 (4) ◽  
pp. 5889-5899 ◽  
Santanu Das

ABSTRACT The standard model of cosmology predicts a statistically isotropic (SI) cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky. However, the SI violation signals are always present in an observed sky-map. Different cosmological artefacts, measurement effects, and unavoidable effects during data analysis, etc. may lead to isotropy violation in an otherwise SI sky. Therefore, a proper data analysis technique should calculate all these SI violation signals, so that they can be matched with SI violation signals from the known sources, and then conclude if there is any intrinsic SI violation in the CMB sky. In one of our recent works, we presented a general Bayesian formalism for measuring the isotropy violation signals in the CMB sky in the presence of an idealized isotropic noise. In this paper, we have extended the mechanism and develop a software package, sitoolbox, for measuring SI violation in presence of anisotropic noise and masking.

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