Standard Deviation
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2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 1882-1887
Author(s):  
Yoshinori Nakai ◽  
◽  
Yuko Shono ◽  
Kaori Taoka ◽  
Yoshihide Nakai ◽  
...  

AIM: To compare the imo perimeter, a new portable head-mounted perimeter unit that enables both eyes to be examined quickly and simultaneously, with the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA) perimeter to investigate correlations and their diagnostic ability in glaucomatous eyes. METHODS: The performance of the equipment in 128 glaucomatous eyes and 40 normal eyes were tested. We investigated the correlations of mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, visual field index, and the sensitivity. RESULTS: Measurements of mean deviation (r=0.886, P<0.001), pattern standard deviation (r=0.814, P<0.001), and visual field index (r=0.871, P<0.001) in both perimeters were strongly and positively correlated. The sensitivities in the imo perimeter were 80.5% for mean deviation, 81.2% for pattern standard deviation, and 80.5% in visual field index; those in the HFA were 63.3% for mean deviation, 74.5% for pattern standard deviation, and 80.5% for visual field index. Both perimeters demonstrated high diagnostic ability. CONCLUSION: The parameters by the imo and HFA in glaucomatous eyes show strong positive correlations with favorable sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic ability. However, the difference between imo and HFA results increases with the increase in visual field disturbance.


MAUSAM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 60 (1) ◽  
pp. 73-80
Author(s):  
P. K. SINGH ◽  
L. S. RATHORE ◽  
K. K. SINGH ◽  
A. K. BAXLA ◽  
B. ATHIYAMAN

The knowledge of rainfall pattern (amount and probability) helps in planning of crops to be grown in a region. Therefore weekly, monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall data for 33 years (1974-2006) for the station Palampur have been collected and its analysis has been attempted.  The annual and monthly rainfall data were analyzed for finding out drought normality and abnormality. The analysis indicated that the rainfall is mainly confined in annual rainfall       2343 mm with 25.7 per cent variability. The standard deviation of annual rainfall is 62.8 mm. Each standard week from 26th to 35th receive a rainfall of more than 100 mm, indicating the crop period. Seed sowing in paddy nursery in the Palampur region generally takes places immediately after initiation of monsoon during 23rd - 25th standard meteorological weeks and transplanting is carried out around 27th or 28th standard meteorological week. The tillering, 50 percent flowering and dough stage are observed during 32-33rd, 37-38th and 40-41st  standard meteorological weeks respectively.


MAUSAM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 49-58
Author(s):  
CHARAN SINGH ◽  
B. R. LOE

ABSTRACT. Cyclo-genesis over north Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea) has been studied with reference to the formation and shift of cyclo-genesis area. The frequency of formation of cyclones during a particular month and year for the period of study has been presented. The study has shown that the maximum number of cyclo-genesis occurred during the month of July followed by August and September. Cyclo-genesis was about three times more in the Bay of Bengal as compared to that in the Arabian Sea. Areas favourable for cyclo-genesis were found between Lat. 15.0° N to 22.5° N and Long. 86.0° E to 92.0° E over the Bay of Bengal and Lat. 7.0° N to 12.5° N and 60.0° E to 74.0° E over the Arabian sea while meander over north Indian ocean, some times its shift significantly. Standard deviation of number of cyclones has been computed for the decades from 1891-2000. It was found that it was maximum (1.96) during 1941-1950 followed by 1981-1990 (1.92).


Author(s):  
A.U. Nnodim ◽  
Matilda T. Allison

The study was conducted to investigate the perceived influence of socio-economic infrastructure on vocational skills acquisition and practice among rural youths in Bonny Local Government Area, Rivers State. Three objectives, three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The total population of the study was 78,373 rural youths while the sample size was 398 youths sampled from the population using Taro Yeman sample determination model. A structured questionnaire was used to gather data for the study. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation , while z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that youths in Bonny Local Government Area agreed that they were exposed to varied  vocational skills training . Also, the respondents agreed that transportation influences their acquisition and practice of vocational skills, and finally, the youths agreed that electricity influences their vocational skills acquisition and practice amongst other. It was then recommended  that government should provide more training centres for youths,  employment should not be on paper and pen qualifications alone but also on skills acquisition related to the job areas.


Author(s):  
Ingrid Lindgren ◽  
Hélène Pessah-Rasmussen ◽  
Gunvor Gard ◽  
Christina Brogårdh

Objective: To explore how persons who have returned to work perceive their work situation and work ability one year after stroke. Design: Cross-sectional design. Subjects: A total of 88 persons of working age (mean age 52 (standard deviation; SD 8) years, 36% women), with mild to moderate disabilities following stroke, who had returned to work after one year [AQ14] participated in the study. Methods: A survey including a questionnaire regarding psychological and social factors at work (QPS Nordic) and 4 questions from the Work Ability Index (WAI) was posted to the participants. Results: According to the QPS Nordic survey, 69–94% of respondents perceived their work duties as well defined, and were content with their work performance. Most participants had good social support at work and at home. Between 51% and 64% of respondents reported that they seldom felt stressed at work, seldom had to work overtime, or that work demands interfered [AQ15] with family life. According to the WAI ≥75% of respondents perceived their work ability as sufficient, and they were rather [AQ3] sure that they would still be working 2 years hence. Conclusion: Persons who have returned to [AQ4] work one year after stroke appear to be content with their work situation and work ability. Appreciation at work, well-defined and meaningful work duties and support seem to be important for a sustainable work situation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (11) ◽  
pp. 5241-5260
Author(s):  
Birgit Wessel ◽  
Martin Huber ◽  
Christian Wohlfart ◽  
Adina Bertram ◽  
Nicole Osterkamp ◽  
...  

Abstract. We present the generation and validation of an updated version of the TanDEM-X digital elevation model (DEM) of Antarctica: the TanDEM-X PolarDEM 90 m of Antarctica. Improvements compared to the global TanDEM-X DEM version comprise filling gaps with newer bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) acquisitions of the TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X satellites, interpolation of smaller voids, smoothing of noisy areas, and replacement of frozen or open sea areas with geoid undulations. For the latter, a new semi-automatic editing approach allowed for the delineation of the coastline from DEM and amplitude data. Finally, the DEM was transformed into the cartographic Antarctic Polar Stereographic projection with a homogeneous metric spacing in northing and easting of 90 m. As X-band SAR penetrates the snow and ice pack by several meters, a new concept for absolute height adjustment was set up that relies on areas with stable penetration conditions and on ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) elevations. After DEM generation and editing, a sophisticated height error characterization of the whole Antarctic continent with ICESat data was carried out, and a validation over blue ice achieved a mean vertical height error of just −0.3 m ± 2.5 m standard deviation. The filled and edited Antarctic TanDEM-X PolarDEM 90 m is outstanding due to its accuracy, homogeneity, and coverage completeness. It is freely available for scientific purposes and provides a high-resolution data set as basis for polar research, such as ice velocity, mass balance estimation, or orthorectification.


Author(s):  
Anton Sonntag ◽  
Carina Kelbsch ◽  
Ronja Jung ◽  
Helmut Wilhelm ◽  
Torsten Strasser ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose To assess the effect of central and peripheral stimulation on the pupillary light reflex. The aim was to detect possible differences between cone- and rod-driven reactions. Methods Relative maximal pupil constriction amplitude (relMCA) and latency to constriction onset (latency) to cone- and rod-specific stimuli of 30 healthy participants (24 ± 5 years (standard deviation)) were measured using chromatic pupil campimetry. Cone- and rod-specific stimuli had different intensities and wavelengths according to the Standards in Pupillography. Five filled circles with radii of 3°, 5°, 10°, 20° and 40° and four rings with a constant outer radius of 40° and inner radii of 3°, 5°, 10° and 20° were used as stimuli. Results For cone-and rod-specific stimuli, relMCA increased with the stimulus area for both, circles and rings. However, increasing the area of a cone-specific ring by minimizing its inner radius with constant outer radius increased relMCA significantly stronger than the same did for a rod-specific ring. For cones and rods, a circle stimulus with a radius of 40° created a lower relMCA than the summation of the relMCAs to the corresponding ring and circle stimuli which combined create a 40° circle-stimulus. Latency was longer for rods than for cones. It decreased with increasing stimulus area for circle stimuli while it stayed nearly constant with increasing ring stimulus area for cone- and rod-specific stimuli. Conclusion The effect of central stimulation on relMCA is more dominant for cone-specific stimuli than for rod-specific stimuli while latency dynamics are similar for both conditions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 449-458
Author(s):  
Danilo Conrado Silva ◽  
◽  
Maria Clorinda Soares Fioravanti ◽  
Paulo José Bastos Queiroz ◽  
Marcelo Corrêa da Silva ◽  
...  

This study aimed to carry out the morphological characterization of the remaining specimens of the Curraleiro horse in municipalities of the state of Goiás, Brazil. Forty male horses were evaluated using the age of five years as a criterion. Sixteen linear measurements and 13 zootechnical indices were obtained. Subsequently, the mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, and covariances of these measures and indices were obtained using the software IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows. The measures withers height (WH), croup height (CH), midback height (MH), sternum-to-ground height (SH), chest index (CI), and estimated weight (W) allowed characterizing Curraleiro horses as small-sized, light, and fast, with proportional measures. The dactyl-thoracic index (DTI), body index (BI), conformation index (CFI), load index 1 and 2 (LOI1 and LOI2), and compactness index 1 and 2 (COI1 and COI2) showed that the Curraleiro horse has an intermediate capacity for speed and strength, bearing considerable weight on the back, with saddling aptitude and fast work. These results represent the beginning of the formation of a database that may contribute to future studies and the conservation of the Curraleiro horse in the state of Goiás.


2021 ◽  
Vol 922 (2) ◽  
pp. 94
Author(s):  
Yining Song ◽  
Zhiyong Liu ◽  
Na Wang ◽  
Jun Li ◽  
Rai Yuen

Abstract We propose an algorithm, referred to as the pulsar phase and standard deviation (PPSD), to mitigate transient radio frequency interference (RFI) in pulsar observations. PPSD uses the model for pulsar time of arrival to identify pulsar phase and extract the pulse profile to protect the original pulsar profile. PPSD sets a threshold based on the statistics empirical rule to label the transient RFI in the off-pulse data until all unlabelled off-pulse data obeys the white Gaussian noise (WGN) distribution. The transient RFI data is then substituted with WGN. Finally, we use PPSD to process the pulsar observation data obtained from the NanShan 25 m Radio Telescope. Our results show that PPSD can effectively mitigate the transient RFI and improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the pulsar observations.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0260366
Author(s):  
Jason Chen ◽  
Scott L. Diamond

A highly reduced extrinsic pathway coagulation model (8 ODEs) under flow considered a thin 15-micron platelet layer where transport limitations were largely negligible (except for fibrinogen) and where cofactors (FVIIa, FV, FVIII) were not rate-limiting. By including thrombin feedback activation of FXI and the antithrombin-I activities of fibrin, the model accurately simulated measured fibrin formation and thrombin fluxes. Using this reduced model, we conducted 10,000 Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for ±50% variation of 5 plasma zymogens and 2 fibrin binding sites for thrombin. A sensitivity analysis of zymogen concentrations indicated that FIX activity most influenced thrombin generation, a result expected from hemophilia A and B. Averaging all MC simulations confirmed both the mean and standard deviation of measured fibrin generation on 1 tissue factor (TF) molecule per μm2. Across all simulations, free thrombin in the layer ranged from 20 to 300 nM (mean: 50 nM). The top 2% of simulations that produced maximal fibrin were dominated by conditions with low antithrombin-I activity (decreased weak and strong sites) and high FIX concentration. In contrast, the bottom 2% of simulations that produced minimal fibrin were dominated by low FIX and FX. The percent reduction of fibrin by an ideal FXIa inhibitor (FXI = 0) ranged from 71% fibrin reduction in the top 2% of MC simulations to only 34% fibrin reduction in the bottom 2% of MC simulations. Thus, the antithrombotic potency of FXIa inhibitors may vary depending on normal ranges of zymogen concentrations. This reduced model allowed efficient multivariable sensitivity analysis.


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