pap smear
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J Vini Mary Antony ◽  
Pratibha Ramani

The routine procedure to prepare a Pap smear is done by fixing the slides with 95% ethanol immediately after the sample is taken. This study was performed to determine the alternative method of air-drying and rehydration prior to alcohol fixation instead of conventional method. Paired buccal smears were collected from 50 patients who participated in the study. One set was labeled as (Wet fixed in 95% ethanol) WF and the other one Air-dried fixed (ARF) rehydrated and fixed with coconut oil. The staining quality of the slides was assessed with respect to nuclear details and cytoplasmic details, cytoplasmic staining and background staining. Single blinded study was done. The results were analyzed by Chi square test to compare the defined parameters between the two groups. Air-dried fixed (ARF) slides with coconut oil was significantly better with regard to clearance of background. There was statistically significant difference between the air dried smear rehydrated with coconut oil and normal wet fixed smear. So air dried smear rehydrated with coconut oil can be used as an alternative to wet fixed smear.

2022 ◽  
pp. 107815522110738
Aysen Uygun ◽  
Nazli Dilek Caliskan ◽  
Songul Tezcan

Background and Objective The aim of the study is to evaluate the knowledge of community pharmacists on cancer and screening methods. Setting and Method This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study and was conducted between January-June 2020 in Istanbul/Turkey. a structured questionnaire was applied to pharmacists as online. The questionnaire was prepared by the researchers and consisted of 49 questions; basic information about cancer (15 items), signs and symptoms (11 items), causes and risk factors (14 items), cancer screening methods (9 items). Results It was determined that the majority (>90%) of the pharmacists did not receive any education on cancer and/or cancer screening methods after graduation. The sufficient knowledge level of the pharmacists about cancer basics, signs and symptoms, and risk factors were found to be as 80%, 77%, and 67%, respectively. The internal consistency level of the questionnaire was calculated (Cronbach's alpha = 0.814). The item “Every woman should perform breast self-examination and notify a health professional when there is a change in breast appearance or feeling,” was answered correctly by 98% of the pharmacists. It was determined that 71% of the pharmacists gave the correct answer to the item “Women aged 21–30 years should have a PAP smear every 3 years”. Conclusion According to the results of the study, while the rate of sufficient knowledge level on cancer was found to be low, knowledge on cancer screening was found to be sufficient. We think that pharmacists should receive training on cancer and screening methods and to follow the guidelines closely.

2022 ◽  
Gal Hershkovitz ◽  
Yifat Ochshorn ◽  
Nadav Michaan ◽  
Elisheva Fiszer ◽  
Dan Grisaru ◽  

Abstract Background. To investigate whether knowledge regarding cervical cancer risk factors and Pap testing influence OB/GYN physicians’ compliance to cervical cancer screening and prevention.Methods. Female physicians working in the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire assessing their knowledge of cervical cancer related factors, Pap testing and compliance with screening guidelines. Reported data was compared between resident and senior OB/GYN physicians and physicians from non-OB/GYN specialties.Results. 42 female OB/GYNs ( residents – 18, seniors- 24) and 80 female physicians of other specialties (“non-OB/GYNs”, residents -48, seniors -32) volunteered to participate in our study, with similar proportions of resident and senior participents between the two groups (p=0.0865). Generally, OB/GYNs were more knowledgable about cervical cancer prevention and risk factors compared to non-OB/GYNs. OB/GYN residents knew less about world health organization (WHO) recommendations for age at last Pap compared to senior OB/GYNs (answered correctly – 50% vs. 83%, respectively, p=0.04). They also knew less about the upper age for vaccine administration (answered correctly – 11% vs 50%, respectively, p=0.01). Even so, the majority of physician recommended Human Papillomavirus vaccination, in all groups compared. A similar proportion of OB/GYNs and non-OB/GYNs had performed a Pap smear in the last 3 years (OB/GYN – 75% non-OB/GYN – 83%, p=0.3). Of note, a higher percentage of residents, both OB/GYNs and non- OBGYNs were vaccinated against Human Papillomavirus compared to their senior counterparts (OB/GYNs -38.89% vs. 4.17%, p=0.013, non-OB/GYNs 50% vs. 12.5%, p=0.0007). Only half of OB/GYNs (residents – 50%, seniors –66.67%, p>0.99) initiated their Pap testing, similar to non-OB/GYNs. Human Papillomavirus vaccination was more prevalent among residents than among seniors, regardless of their specialty (OB/GYNs – 38.89% vs. 4.17%, p=0.013, non OB/GYN – 50% vs. 12.5%, p=0.0007) with a trend toward higher porportions of vaccinated physicians in non-OBGYNs.Conclusion. Female OB/GYNs’ knowledge of the importance of Pap test and their accessibility to Pap smear services, do not improve their compliance for Pap smear performance or Human Papillomavirus vaccination. Residents tend to have better general personal health habits out of their field of specialty.

Andrea Brunner ◽  
Wolfgang Kruis ◽  
Birgid Schömig-Markiefka ◽  
Julia Morgenstern ◽  
Marianne Engels ◽  

Mehdi Ashik Chowdhury ◽  
Asim Ranjan Barua ◽  
- Asaduzzaman ◽  
Mohammad Mahabubul Hoque ◽  
DM Arifur Rahman

Background: Cervical cancer screening can actually prevent most cervical cancers and also facilitates early detection which allows fruitful treatment.Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of Liquid-based cytology (LBC) with conventional Pap smear test.Methods: This crosssectional study was conducted between March 2015 and June 2017. A total of 72 women participated in this study attending the Out-Patient Department (OPD) of Gynaecology (Colposcopy Clinic) of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh, for VIA test. The smears prepared by the conventional Pap smear method and Liquid-based cytology method were observed by two independent observers in Department of Pathology of the same institution.Results: The mean age of the patients was 40.22±12.29 years. Considering histopathology as gold standard, in conventional Pap smear preparation our data suggested its sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 92.2%, accuracy 91.7%, positive predictive value 58.3% and negative predictive value 98.3%. In contrast, in Liquid-based cytology, we found its sensitivity 75.0%, specificity 90.6%, accuracy 88.9%, positive predictive value 50.0% and negative predictive value 96.7%.Conclusion: LBC has practical advantages over conventional preparation by producing monolayer of cells, smaller area to screen, reproducibility and availability of doing adjunct molecular techniques from residual sample. However, conventional preparation shows better sensitivity and positive predictive value and almost similar specificity, negative predictive value and accuracy with LBC.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 06 No. 01 January’22 Page: 36-40

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 155-160
Elsa Fitri Ana ◽  
Mienna Yuniarti ◽  
Isnul Jumrotul Jannah ◽  
Miratul Hasanah ◽  
Sulastri Sulastri ◽  

ABSTRAKKanker serviks adalah penyebab kematian tertinggi keempat pada wanita di dunia. Tingginya angka kesakitan dan kematian wanita akibat kanker serviks di Indonesia, juga menunjukkan rendahnya angka cakupan pemeriksaan papsmear dan imunisasi HPV di Indonesia. Oleh karena itu dibutuhkan metode promosi kesehatan untuk mendorong wanita untuk aktif dalam melakukan pencegahan kanker serviks. Kegiatan ini merupakan salah satu bentuk pengabdian masyarakat yang dilakukan dengan cara penyuluhan melalui metode ceramah dan diskusi dengan aplikasi zoom dan whatsapp. Peserta yang mendaftar dalam kegiatan ini sejunlah 41 orang dengan rentang usia 20-35 tahun. Peserta berasal dari berbagai daerah antara lain, Jakarta, Lampung, Surabaya, Malang, Palu dan Banjarmasin. Materi yang telah disampaikan menyatakan bahwa pencegahan kanker serviks dapat dilakukan sedini mungkin. Dibandingkan dengan metode penyuluhan yang dilakukan secara langsung, pemanfaatan media sosial terbukti efektif dalam mencapai jangkauan keluasan sasaran. Kata kunci: kanker serviks, pencegahan, deteksi dini, HPV  ABSTRACTCervical cancer is the fourth main cause of death in women in the world and the main cause of death for women in developing countries. The high morbidity and mortality rates for women due to cervical cancer in Indonesia also shows the low coverage rates for Pap smear test and HPV immunization in Indonesia. Therefore a health promotion is needed to encourage women to be active in preventing cervical cancer. This event is a form of counseling through lectures and discussions with zoom and WhatsApp applications. The number of participants who participated in this activity was 41 people in age 20-35 years from various provinces including Jakarta, Lampung, Surabaya, Malang, and Banjarmasin. The subject that has been presented states that cervical cancer prevention can be done as early as possible. Compared to conventional health promotion methods, the use of social media has proven to be effective in reaching a broad target. Keywords: cervical cancer, prevention, early detection, HPV

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
F. S. Carvalho ◽  
N. K. A. Porto ◽  
P. V. M. Azevedo ◽  
P. K. A. Magalhães ◽  
E. N. de Araújo ◽  

Abstract Urinary tract infections are responsible for most human infections, these are caused by bacteria, fungi, protozoa and associated microorganisms. The goal of this study was to determine the rate of vaginal infection-causing agents in routine cytological exams and also to evaluate the characteristics of positive tested Pap smears. A retrospective documental with descriptive aspect research was performed in a Clinical Pathology laboratory from Maceió-AL. The results of the Pap smears exams for Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp and HPV were arranged in a database as well as other data such as bacterial, protozoan, fungal and viral coinfections. The sample was composed by 18.645 women who have undergone Pap smear exams from 2013 to 2017. Of these analyzed exams, 27.4% in 2013, 10.9% in 2014, 10.6% in 2015, 15.2% in 2016 and 13.67% in 2017 were within normal range, however more than half of these exams presented some infections caused by unspecific or microbiological agents. By analyzing all the reports, 4.073 (21.84%) presented inflammations caused by some species of infectious agent with the following rate order: G. vaginalis and T. vaginalis. Furthermore, it was possible to confirm high rates of coinfection by and Candida spp. The rate of genital infections in this study highlights that there is a public health matter that must be controlled, which points a greater need for monitoring, guidance and actions towards greater awareness in order to prevent these problems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 71 (2) ◽  
pp. 3969-3983
CSS Anupama ◽  
T. J. Benedict Jose ◽  
Heba F. Eid ◽  
Nojood O Aljehane ◽  
Fahd N. Al-Wesabi ◽  

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