Case Reports in Neurology
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Published By S. Karger Ag

Updated Thursday, 25 November 2021

2021 ◽  
pp. 749-754
Fumihito Yoshii ◽  
Koji Aono ◽  
Ryuya Kumazawa ◽  
Wakoh Takahashi

We report a 34-year-old female PARK2 patient presenting with dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD). She noticed difficulty in raising her foot while walking at the age of 24. Her lower limb symptoms were identified as dystonia later, and she was started on Menesit, which resulted in improvement of her symptoms. She was diagnosed as DRD and has been on continuous treatment since then. The specific binding ratio (SBR) of <sup>123</sup>I FP-CIT SPECT was significantly lower than those of controls of the same age, but <sup>123</sup>I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy showed a normal heart to mediastinum ratio. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Japanese version, was normal for her age. DRD is an inherited dystonia that typically begins during childhood and may be caused by mutations of the GCH1 (GTP cyclohydrolase), SPR (sepiapterin reductase), or TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) genes. Our patient was diagnosed as PARK2, known as autosomal-recessive juvenile Parkinson’s disease, based on genetic analysis. Although there was no family history of the disease, the decrease in SBR of <sup>123</sup>I FP-CIT SPECT enabled us to diagnose PARK2 and to differentiate this from DRD due to other genetic disorders.

2021 ◽  
pp. 744-748
Dhanashree Peddawad

This case represents a unique example of stroke in a young patient involving major venous sinuses as well as major artery in a span of 6 months. After evaluation, he was found to have an abnormal thrombophilia profile. In young patients with recurrent stroke, investigating for an abnormal thrombophilia profile is crucial.

2021 ◽  
pp. 739-743
Mayusa Mito ◽  
Kotaro Sakurai ◽  
Yuichi Nakamura ◽  
Azusa Nagai ◽  
Sho Seo ◽  

Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a group of inflammatory brain diseases that are characterized by prominent neuropsychiatric symptoms. Early therapeutic intervention is important for AE. Therefore, without waiting for autoantibody test results, clinicians must consider the possibility of AE based solely on clinical symptoms and conventional test results. The case described herein is of antibody-negative encephalitis with abnormalities shown only by EEG, which contributed to the diagnosis and treatment. The patient, a 20-year-old woman, showed autonomic seizures in addition to movement disorders, psychiatric symptoms, and cognitive dysfunction, which worsened subacutely. Her seizures and movement disorders were not responsive to antiepileptic medications. Results obtained from MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were normal; EEG findings showed repeated spikes in the right temporal area, with changes over time. Based on the clinical course and EEG, along with administered immunotherapy, which resolved seizures, movement disorders, and psychiatric symptoms, we suspected AE. For diagnosis of AE and for evaluating treatment responsiveness, EEG was useful. Results indicate that EEG can assist clinicians even with AE cases for which MRI and CSF findings are normal.

2021 ◽  
pp. 729-737
Georgios Mikellides ◽  
Panayiota Michael ◽  
Angelos Gregoriou ◽  
Teresa Schuhmann ◽  
Alexander T. Sack

Epilepsy is a common and severe neurological disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Nowadays, antiseizure medications (ASMs) are the main treatment for most epilepsy patients, although many of them do not respond to ASMs and suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Alternative and novel treatment methods have been offered nowadays, showing promising results for the treatment of DRE. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive method that has become increasingly popular in the last decades. This article reports a patient with frontal lobe epilepsy. We aimed to investigate whether bilateral orbitofrontal (OFC) low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS) is feasible and tolerable, safe, and potentially clinically effective in treating epileptic seizures. The patient’s satisfaction with rTMS therapy was self-reported to be high, as rTMS helped in reducing the frequency of the focal attacks and completely abolished the preceding feeling of fear and panic. Therefore, bilateral OFC rTMS treatment can be well tolerated in patients with frontal epilepsy although the findings of the present case report with regard to clinical efficacy warrant further investigation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 724-728
Rei Hashimoto ◽  
Etsuko Tanabe ◽  
Yoshihisa Otsuka ◽  
Yukihiro Yoneda ◽  
Yasufumi Kageyama

Neurological adverse events of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy mostly develop within 3 months after initiation of ICI treatment. An 82-year-old male with malignant pleural mesothelioma developed anti-Ma2-associated limbic encephalitis at a delay of 18 months after the start of nivolumab therapy (3 months after termination of a 15-month course of ICI treatment). Immunotherapy with steroids and immunoglobulins resulted in moderate neurological improvement. Over the next year, malignant pleural mesothelioma gradually worsened, while the anti-Ma2 antibody test remained positive. Anti-Ma2 paraneoplastic encephalitis may occur after a delay following the discontinuation of ICI therapy.

2021 ◽  
pp. 716-723
Pitirat Panpruang ◽  
Monton Wongwandee ◽  
Nattapun Rattanajaruskul ◽  
Worawut Roongsangmanoon ◽  
Arthit Wongsoasu ◽  

Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) is a rarely curious visual perceptual disorder which has been associated with diverse neurologic and psychiatric problems. It may be a manifestation in migraine, epileptic seizures, encephalitis, other brain lesions, medication-related side effects, schizophrenia, and depressive disorders. Principal character of AIWS is the disproportion between the external world and the self-image in which micropsia (objects appear smaller), macropsia (objects appear larger), and teleopsia (objects appear further away) are frequently reported. The cases of temporal lobe epilepsy may present with complex visual auras of visual distortions (e.g., micropsia and macropsia) like AIWS. We report an unusual case of an elderly man who presented with AIWS, focal impaired awareness seizures, ictal tachyarrhythmia, multiple episodes of transient visual disturbances of macropsia and transient loss of consciousness. During those symptoms, telemetry showed self-limited supraventricular tachycardia several times which could not be regulated with heart rate-controlled medication. The electroencephalography was later tested and showed rhythmic theta activity over the right cerebral hemisphere. He was treated with levetiracetam, and all his symptoms and tachyarrhythmias were gradually resolved thereafter. Refractory response to treatment would remind the physicians to reassess for the correct diagnosis.

2021 ◽  
pp. 699-703
Tetsuya Akaishi ◽  
Hiroshi Karibe ◽  
Toshiki Endo ◽  
Tadashi Ishii

Organized chronic subdural hematoma is a neurological condition characterized by organized clot formation inside the hematoma. Unlike nonorganized chronic subdural hematoma with persistent bleeding inside, organized subdural hematoma is often a nonurgent condition that does not require emergency drainage, unless progressive cerebral compression with neurological disturbances is present. However, as the CT values in organized clot formation and active bleeding fall in similar ranges, distinguishing these 2 conditions with different emergency levels based on brain CT alone is sometimes difficult. Here, we describe the case of a 78-year-old man with persistent nocturia who was referred to our hospital. He had a history of head trauma on the left side about 1 year ago, followed by neurosurgery at another hospital. Brain CT revealed a multiseptated subdural space and a mixed-density hematoma without gradation density on the contralateral side of the past head trauma region. Based on the lack of progressive neurological disturbances and the absence of gradation density in CT values inside the hematomas, his condition was judged as nonurgent, and emergency drainage was spared. One year after his first visit to our hospital, the patient experienced a normal life without any neurological disturbances, except for nocturia. The absence of gradation density in CT values along the gravity direction inside the organized hematoma may be a clue to estimate nonurgency without persistent active bleeding inside.

2021 ◽  
pp. 704-709
Lilly Nguyen ◽  
Joyce Hoonsuh Lee ◽  
Latha Ganti ◽  
Mark Rivera-Morales ◽  
Larissa Dub

The authors present the case of a young woman on phentermine and herbal supplements who presented as an acute stroke alert with right-sided facial droop and numbness. She was treated acutely with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, the workup did not reveal any evidence of cerebrovascular disease or cerebral infarct. The authors discuss plausible stroke mimics and the safety of administering tPA to such patients.

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