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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Maria da Graça Morais Martin ◽  
Vitor Ribeiro Paes ◽  
Ellison Fernando Cardoso ◽  
Carlos Eduardo Borges Passos Neto ◽  
Cristina Takami Kanamura ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Brain abnormalities are a concern in COVID-19, so we used minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) to investigate it, consisting of brain 7T MR and CT images and tissue sampling via transethmoidal route with at least three fragments: the first one for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and the remaining fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Two mouse monoclonal anti-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies were employed in immunohistochemical (IHC) reactions. Results Seven deceased COVID-19 patients underwent MIA with brain MR and CT images, six of them with tissue sampling. Imaging findings included infarcts, punctate brain hemorrhagic foci, subarachnoid hemorrhage and signal abnormalities in the splenium, basal ganglia, white matter, hippocampi and posterior cortico-subcortical. Punctate brain hemorrhage was the most common finding (three out of seven cases). Brain histological analysis revealed reactive gliosis, congestion, cortical neuron eosinophilic degeneration and axonal disruption in all six cases. Other findings included edema (5 cases), discrete perivascular hemorrhages (5), cerebral small vessel disease (3), perivascular hemosiderin deposits (3), Alzheimer type II glia (3), abundant corpora amylacea (3), ischemic foci (1), periventricular encephalitis foci (1), periventricular vascular ectasia (1) and fibrin thrombi (1). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected with RT-PCR in 5 out of 5 and IHC in 6 out 6 patients (100%). Conclusions Despite limited sampling, MIA was an effective tool to evaluate underlying pathological brain changes in deceased COVID-19 patients. Imaging findings were varied, and pathological features corroborated signs of hypoxia, alterations related to systemic critically ill and SARS-CoV-2 brain invasion.


2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 672-675
Author(s):  
Poorva Shrivastava ◽  
Lalit Shrivastava

The present study aimed to study the effectiveness of B scan in assessing the posterior segment in patients with ocular trauma, so that further treatment plan can be decided and prognosis can be improved. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study at tertiary care centre during the study period of 1 year on 42 patients presenting with history of ocular trauma. Patients were subjected to detailed history and ocular examination followed by B scan ultrasonography for ruling out posterior segment pathology. Mean age of 42.7±20.2 years and 45.2% patients belonged to 41 to 60 years of age. About 54.8% cases were females. About 50% cases had one or the other posterior segment finding. Retinal detachment followed by vitreous hemorrhage were the most common findings, observed in 19% and 11.9% cases respectively. Avulsion of optic nerve was the least common finding (2.4%). B scan ultrasonography plays an important role in management of patients with ocular trauma for the detection of hidden posterior segment lesions. B scan must be performed routinely in all the cases of ocular trauma for early diagnosis and appropriate management of each case and to reduce the ocular morbidities.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 325-327
Author(s):  
Namit Nagar

“Sagging” of the palatal cusp of upper second molars is a common finding observed during orthodontic treatment which may develop heavy balancing side contacts, which have been found to be detrimental to harmonious function of the masticatory system. Various modifications of transpalatal arch (TPA) are advocated to correct crossbite, but most of them will utilize an additional step of soldering a wire attachment to TPA. In this clinical pearl, the TPA was fabricated using a single wire component, eliminating an additional step of soldering.


Author(s):  
Qing Wei ◽  
Wenjing Chen ◽  
Qian Liang ◽  
Shurong Song ◽  
Jia Li

Objective Meconium is a common finding in amniotic fluid and placental specimens, particularly in term and post-term pregnancies. The objective of this paper was to perform a meta-analysis to examine the impact of endotracheal suctioning on the occurrence of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), mortality, and complications. Study Design PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for comparative studies. Odds ratios (ORs), weighted mean differences (WMDs), and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare the outcomes. Results Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were no significant impacts of endotracheal suctioning on the occurrence of MAS (OR = 3.05, 95% CI: 0.48–19.56), mortality (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.35–4.44), the need for mechanical ventilation (OR = 4.20, 95% CI: 0.32–54.72), the occurrence of pneumothorax (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.34–2.85), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.58–2.98), hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.52–1.30), and length of stay (WMD = −0.11, 95% CI: −0.99–0.77). Conclusion Routine endotracheal suctioning at birth is not useful in preventing MAS, mortality, mechanical ventilation, PPHN, HIE, and prolonged length of stay in neonates born through MSAF. Key Points


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Author(s):  
Tessa M. Z. X. K. van Horrik ◽  
Bart J. Laan ◽  
Tamara N. Platteel ◽  
Suzanne E. Geerlings

Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a common finding in certain populations. This study assessed general practitioners’ (GPs’) knowledge about ASB and their current clinical practice regarding urine testing. Methods: An online survey was used for GPs in the Netherlands from October to December 2020. Results: In total, 99 surveys were included in the analyses. All GPs strongly agreed with the statements about their knowledge and self-confidence regarding urine diagnostics and treatment of ASB. The median knowledge score was 4 out of 6 (IQR 2 to 6). Most GPs (64 of 92; 70%) followed the guideline for the choice of urine diagnostics and reported appropriate indications for urine testing. However, 71/94 (75.5%) GPs would treat patients for ASB if they have diabetes mellitus. Further, 34 (37%) of 92 participants would inappropriately repeat a urine test after a patient was treated for a urinary tract infection (UTI). One-third of the GPs responded that ASB was insufficiently addressed within the guidelines for UTI. Conclusion: These results indicate that knowledge about ASB could be improved in primary care in the Netherlands, mainly in diabetic patients that have ASB, as well as for follow-up tests after treatment for UTI.


Author(s):  
Jenna M. Wahbeh ◽  
Sang-Hyun Park ◽  
Patricia Campbell ◽  
Edward Ebramzadeh ◽  
Sophia N. Sangiorgio

Abstract Background Periprosthetic bone loss is a common observation following arthroplasty. Recognizing and understanding the nature of bone loss is vital as it determines the subsequent performance of the device and the overall outcome. Despite its significance, the term “bone loss” is often misused to describe inflammatory osteolysis, a complication with vastly different clinical outcomes and treatment plans. Therefore, the goal of this review was to report major findings related to vertebral radiographic bone changes around cervical disc replacements, mitigate discrepancies in clinical reports by introducing uniform terminology to the field, and establish a precedence that can be used to identify the important nuances between these distinct complications. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted following PRISMA guidelines, using the keywords “cervical,” “disc replacement,” “osteolysis,” “bone loss,” “radiograph,” and “complications.” A total of 23 articles met the inclusion criteria with the majority being retrospective or case reports. Results Fourteen studies reported periprosthetic osteolysis in a total of 46 patients with onset ranging from 15–96 months after the index procedure. Reported causes included: metal hypersensitivity, infection, mechanical failure, and wear debris. Osteolysis was generally progressive and led to reoperation. Nine articles reported non-inflammatory bone loss in 527 patients (52.5%), typically within 3–6 months following implantation. The reported causes included: micromotion, stress shielding, and interrupted blood supply. With one exception, bone loss was reported to be non-progressive and had no effect on clinical outcome measures. Conclusions Non-progressive, early onset bone loss is a common finding after CDA and typically does not affect the reported short-term pain scores or lead to early revision. By contrast, osteolysis was less common, presenting more than a year post-operative and often accompanied by additional complications, leading to revision surgery. A greater understanding of the clinical significance is limited by the lack of long-term studies, inconsistent terminology, and infrequent use of histology and explant analyses. Uniform reporting and adoption of consistent terminology can mitigate some of these limitations. Executing these actionable items is critical to assess device performance and the risk of revision. Level of Evidence IV Diagnostic: individual cross-sectional studies with consistently applied reference standard and blinding.


Author(s):  
E Salkova ◽  
D Gela ◽  
P Pecherkova ◽  
M Flajshans

Functional diploid Acipenser ruthenus, functional tetraploid Acipenser gueldenstaedtii and functional hexaploid Acipenser brevirostrum juveniles were sampled monthly for one year, and the white blood cell indicators were determined. The total number of leukocytes (TL) was 40.93 ± 17.24 × 10<sup>9</sup>/l for the diploids, 20.63 ± 11.20 × 10<sup>9</sup>/l for the tetraploids, 14.13 ± 7.72 × 10<sup>9</sup>/l for the hexaploids. The TL decreased with an increasing ploidy level. The highest number of leukocytes was reached during September and October for A. ruthenus and A. brevirostrum, from October to January for A. gueldenstaedtii (a statistically significant finding). The lymphocytes dominated (76.89–80.14%) in the differential counts and were found to be reduced in June and July in each group. Granulocytes were represented by neutrophils and eosinophils. Counting from all the leukocytes, the neutrophils represented 13.0–18.7% and eosinophils represented 5.7–6.1%. Increasing number of nuclear segments in the granulocytes was dependent on the increasing ploidy level. Nuclear segmentation in the lymphocytes was a common finding in higher ploidy level groups. The data suggest a significant effect of ploidy level on the total number of leukocytes and morphological nuclear changes in the granulocytes and lymphocytes. The seasonal variation in the differential leukocyte counts depends on the species and the influence of various external conditions rather than the ploidy level.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Almantas Makselis ◽  
Donatas Petroska ◽  
Aiste Kadziauskiene ◽  
Ruta Jaruseviciene ◽  
Andrius Ruzgys ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction is a blockage of the lacrimal outflow system usually caused by local nonspecific inflammation of the lacrimal sac and the nasolacrimal duct. However, cases exist where the primary nasolacrimal system obstruction is caused by malignancies. Our aim was to investigate lacrimal sac pathologies in patients with acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction and compare their clinical manifestations. Methods This retrospective clinical study included 275 patients with acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction who underwent external dacryocystorhinostomy and lacrimal sac biopsy. Cases were classified into tumor or nonspecific pathology groups and subdivided according to the level of inflammation. Histological and clinical data were analyzed. Results Three tumors (1.1%) (an adenoid cystic carcinoma, an eccrine spiradenoma and small B cell lymphoma) were diagnosed. Chronic nongranulomatous inflammation was the most common histological finding, corresponding to 194 cases (70.5%). The other 81 (29.5%) were subacute, acute forms of nongranulomatous inflammation, tumors and fibrosis cases. Epiphora with continuous purulent discharge was the most common clinical sign reported by 144 (52.4%) patients, and two (0.7%) patients had a palpable mass near the medial canthal tendon, which was identified as an eccrine spiradenoma and small B cell lymphoma. There was no significant difference in the clinical symptoms, duration or case history between the nonspecific pathology and tumor groups (p = 0.292). Conclusions Chronic nongranulomatous inflammation of the lacrimal sac was the most common finding among acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction cases. There were no associations between the histological findings and clinical presentation. The authors recommend a lacrimal sac biopsy only in cases when a tumor is clinically suspected.


Author(s):  
Benjamin Babic ◽  
Lars Mortimer Schiffmann ◽  
Hans Friedrich Fuchs ◽  
Dolores Thea Mueller ◽  
Thomas Schmidt ◽  
...  

Abstract Introduction Esophagectomy is the gold standard in the surgical therapy of esophageal cancer. It is either performed thoracoabdominal with a intrathoracic anastomosis or in proximal cancers with a three-incision esophagectomy and cervical reconstruction. Delayed gastric conduit emptying (DGCE) is the most common functional postoperative disorder after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy (IL). Pneumonia is significantly more often in patients with DGCE. It remains unclear if DGCE anastomotic leakage (AL) is associated. Aim of our study is to analyze, if AL is more likely to happen in patients with a DGCE. Patients and methods 816 patients were included. All patients have had an IL due to esophageal/esophagogastric-junction cancer between 2013 and 2018 in our center. Intrathoracic esophagogastric end-to-side anastomosis was performed with a circular stapling device. The collective has been divided in two groups depending on the occurrence of DGCE. The diagnosis DGCE was determined by clinical and radiologic criteria in accordance with current international expert consensus. Results 27.7% of all patients suffered from DGCE postoperatively. Female patients had a significantly higher chance to suffer from DGCE than male patients (34.4% vs. 26.2% vs., p = 0.040). Pneumonia was more common in patients with DGCE (13.7% vs. 8.5%, p = 0.025), furthermore hospitalization was longer in DGCE patients (median 17 days vs. 14d, p < 0.001). There was no difference in the rate of type II anastomotic leakage, (5.8% in both groups DGCE). All patients with ECCG type II AL (n = 47; 5.8%) were treated successfully by endoluminal/endoscopic therapy. The subgroup analysis showed that ASA ≥ III (7.6% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.05) and the histology squamous cell carcinoma (9.8% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.01) were independent risk factors for the occurrence of an AL. Conclusion Our study confirms that DGCE after IL is a common finding in a standardized collective of patients in a high-volume center. This functional disorder is associated with a higher rate of pneumonia and a prolonged hospital stay. Still, there is no association between DGCE and the occurrence of an AL after esophagectomy. The hypothesis, that an DGCE results in a higher pressure on the anastomosis and therefore to an AL in consequence, can be refuted. DGCE is not a pathogenetic factor for an AL.


2022 ◽  
pp. 153857442110726
Author(s):  
Javad Jalili ◽  
Ramin Pourghorban ◽  
Masoud Mahmoudpour ◽  
Ali Akhavi Milani

Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune condition characterized by arteriovenous thromboembolic events. Thrombocytopenia is a common finding among these patients and is typically of mild severity not requiring any treatment. However, severe cases of thrombocytopenia should be treated. Steroids, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), and immunomodulatory agents are the first-line treatment options, and surgical splenectomy is usually reserved for more severe and refractory cases of thrombocytopenia. Herein, we report the case of a 30-year-old man with primary antiphospholipid syndrome and severe thrombocytopenia. The patient’s thrombocytopenia had been refractory to almost all the medical managements, and surgical splenectomy could not be an option due to the patient’s high-risk condition for surgery. The patient was successfully managed by partial splenic embolization (PSE) which was a unique application of this technique.


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