Although restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder, it remains poorly understood from both clinical and pathophysiological perspectives. RLS is classified among sleep-related movement disorders, namely, conditions characterized by simple, often stereotyped movements occurring during sleep. However, several clinical, neurophysiological and neuroimaging observations question this view. The aim of the present review is to summarize and query some of the current concepts (known knowns) and to identify open questions (known unknowns) on RLS pathophysiology. Based on several lines of evidence, we propose that RLS should be viewed as a disorder of sensorimotor interaction with a typical circadian pattern of occurrence, possibly arising from neurochemical dysfunction and abnormal excitability in different brain structures.
Asterixis and dysarthria-clumsy hand are uncommon neurological signs following to movement disorders after a stroke, clinically are classified as a part of lacunar infarction and most of the cases resolved spontaneously within ten days to one month. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of six patients with lacunar infarction and mild motor symptoms of dysarthria and asterixis with no signs of dementia. All patients had as comorbidities hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, it is important due to the transience of the abnormal neurological movements, the promptly recognition of the characteristic clinical presentation and confirmation of the diagnosis with noninvasive studies. The patients should be treated to prevent recurrent stroke with more severe consequences.
[18F]PR04.MZ is a new PET imaging agent for dopamine transporters, providing excellent image quality and allowing for the evaluation of patients with movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [18F]PR04.MZ by serial PET imaging.
Six healthy subjects (n = 3 males, n = 3 females) were enrolled in this study. A series of 14 whole-body PET/CT scans were acquired until 5.5 h post-injection of 200 ± 11 MBq of [18F]PR04.MZ. After rigid co-registration, volumes of interest were outlined either on CT or PET images. Time-integrated activity coefficients were calculated for selected source organs. Organ absorbed doses, and the effective dose were calculated using IDAC-Dose 2.1.
Physiological uptake of [18F]PR04.MZ was mainly observed in the striatum, brain, liver, gall bladder, intestine, red marrow and cortical bone. [18F]PR04.MZ was primarily excreted via hepatobiliary clearance and, to a lower extent, via renal clearance. The normalized absorbed doses were highest in gall bladder wall (32.2 ± 6.4 µGy/MBq), urinary bladder wall (27.2 ± 4.5 µGy/MBq), red marrow (26.5 ± 1.4 µGy/MBq), cortical bone surface (26.3 ± 2.5 µGy/MBq), liver (22.5 ± 1.8 µGy/MBq) and kidneys (21.8 ± 1.1 µGy/MBq). The effective dose according to ICRP 60 and 103 was 16.3 ± 1.1 and 16.6 ± 1.5 µSv/MBq, respectively.
[18F]PR04.MZ has a favourable dosimetry profile, comparable to those of other 18F-labelled PET tracers, and is suitable for larger clinical applications.
Trial registration CEC SSM Oriente, Santiago, Chile, permit 20140520.