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Jelena Ivanović ◽  
Filip Kukić ◽  
Gianpiero Greco ◽  
Nenad Koropanovski ◽  
Saša Jakovljević ◽  

This study investigated the hierarchical structure of physical characteristics in elite young (i.e., U17-U19) basketball players according to playing positions. In addition, their predictive value of physical characteristics was determined for the evaluation of players’ physical preparedness. Sixty elite male basketball players performed 13 standardized specific field tests in order to assess the explosive power of lower limbs, speed, and change-of-direction speed. They were divided into three groups according to playing positions (guard [n = 28], forward [n = 22], center [n = 10]). The basic characteristics of the tested sample were: age = 17.36 ± 1.04 years, body height = 192.80 ± 4.49 cm, body mass = 79.83 ± 6.94 kg, and basketball experience = 9.38 ± 2.10 years for guards; age = 18.00 ± 1.00 years, body height = 201.48 ± 3.14 cm, body mass = 90.93 ± 9.85 kg, and basketball experience = 9.93 ± 2.28 years for forwards; and age = 17.60 ± 1.43 years; body height = 207.20 ± 3.29 cm, body mass = 104.00 ± 9.64 kg, and basketball experience = 9.20 ± 1.62 years for centers. For all playing positions factor analysis extracted three factors, which cumulatively explained 76.87, 88.12 and 87.63% of variance, respectively. The assessed performance measures were defined as significant (p < 0.001), with regression models of physical performance index (PPINDEX). PPINDEX of guards = −6.860 + (0.932 × t-test) − (1.656 × Acceleration 15 m) − (0.020 × Countermovement jump); PPINDEX of forwards = −3.436 − (0.046 × Countermovement jump with arm swing) − (1.295 × Acceleration 15 m) + (0.582 × Control of dribbling); PPINDEX of centers = −4.126 + (0.604 × Control of dribbling) − (1.315 × Acceleration 15 m) − (0.037 × Sargent jump). A model for the evaluation of physical performance of young basketball players has been defined. In addition, this model could be used as a reference model for selection procedures, as well as to monitor the efficacy of applied training programmes within the short, medium and long-term periodization.

Nenad B. Tajsic ◽  
Sigrunn H. Sørbye ◽  
Sophy Nguon ◽  
Vannara Sokh ◽  
Aymeric Lim

Abstract Introduction: The treatment of open lower limb fractures represents a major challenge for any trauma surgeon, and this even more so in resource-limited areas. The aim of the study is to describe the intervention, report the treatment plan, and observe the effectiveness of the Norwegian Open Fracture Management System in saving lower limbs in rural settings. Materials and Methods: A retrospective and prospective interventional study was carried out in the period 2011 through 2017 in six rural hospitals in Cambodia. The fractures were managed with locally produced external fixators and orthosis developed in 2007. Based on skills and living locations, two local surgeons and one paramedic without reconstructive surgery experience were selected to reach the top of the reconstructive ladder and perform limb salvage surgeries. This study evaluated 56 fractures using the Ganga Hospital Open Injury Score (GHOIS) for Gustilo-Anderson Type IIIA and Type IIIB open fracture classification groups. Results: The primary success rate in open tibia fractures was 64.3% (95% CI, 50.3 - 76.3). The average treatment time to complete healing for all of the patients was 39.6 weeks (95% CI, 34.8 - 44.4). A percentage of 23.2% (95% CI, 13.4 - 36.7) experienced a deep infection. Fifteen of the patients had to undergo soft tissue reconstruction and 22 flaps were performed. Due to non-union, a total of 15 bone grafts were performed. All of the 56 patients in the study gained limb salvage and went back to work. Conclusion: The given fracture management program proves that low-resource countries are able to produce essential surgical tools at high quality and low price. Treatment with external fixation and functional bracing, combined with high-level training of local surgeons, demonstrates that a skilled surgical team can perform advanced limb salvage surgery in low-resource settings.

Eddy Saad ◽  
Karl Semaan ◽  
Georges Kawkabani ◽  
Abir Massaad ◽  
Renee Maria Salibv ◽  

Adults with spinal deformity (ASD) are known to have spinal malalignment affecting their quality of life and daily life activities. While walking kinematics were shown to be altered in ASD, other functional activities are yet to be evaluated such as sitting and standing, which are essential for patients’ autonomy and quality of life perception. In this cross-sectional study, 93 ASD subjects (50 ± 20 years; 71 F) age and sex matched to 31 controls (45 ± 15 years; 18 F) underwent biplanar radiographic imaging with subsequent calculation of standing radiographic spinopelvic parameters. All subjects filled HRQOL questionnaires such as SF36 and ODI. ASD were further divided into 34 ASD-sag (with PT &gt; 25° and/or SVA &gt;5 cm and/or PI-LL &gt;10°), 32 ASD-hyperTK (with only TK &gt;60°), and 27 ASD-front (with only frontal malalignment: Cobb &gt;20°). All subjects underwent 3D motion analysis during the sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit movements. The range of motion (ROM) and mean values of pelvis, lower limbs, thorax, head, and spinal segments were calculated on the kinematic waveforms. Kinematics were compared between groups and correlations to radiographic and HRQOL scores were computed. During sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit movements, ASD-sag had decreased pelvic anteversion (12.2 vs 15.2°), hip flexion (53.0 vs 62.2°), sagittal mobility in knees (87.1 vs 93.9°), and lumbar mobility (L1L3-L3L5: −9.1 vs −6.8°, all p &lt; 0.05) compared with controls. ASD-hyperTK showed increased dynamic lordosis (L1L3–L3L5: −9.1 vs −6.8°), segmental thoracic kyphosis (T2T10–T10L1: 32.0 vs 17.2°, C7T2–T2T10: 30.4 vs 17.7°), and thoracolumbar extension (T10L1–L1L3: −12.4 vs −5.5°, all p &lt; 0.05) compared with controls. They also had increased mobility at the thoracolumbar and upper-thoracic spine. Both ASD-sag and ASD-hyperTK maintained a flexed trunk, an extended head along with an increased trunk and head sagittal ROM. Kinematic alterations were correlated to radiographic parameters and HRQOL scores. Even after controlling for demographic factors, dynamic trunk flexion was determined by TK and PI-LL mismatch (adj. R2 = 0.44). Lumbar sagittal ROM was determined by PI-LL mismatch (adj. R2 = 0.13). In conclusion, the type of spinal deformity in ASD seems to determine the strategy used for sitting and standing. Future studies should evaluate whether surgical correction of the deformity could restore sitting and standing kinematics and ultimately improve quality of life.

2022 ◽  
pp. 544-546
Abhishek Sharma ◽  
Gulnaz Bano ◽  
Abdul Malik

Drug-induced vasculitis can be defined as inflammation of blood vessels triggered by a spectrum of drugs. It presents not only with a localized skin rash but also may involve the internal organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, lungs, central nervous system, and joints. Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman who developed purpuric pruritic rashes on bilateral lower limbs and buttocks after the ingestion of sulphasalazine. The patient took the prescribed regimen for 14 days while experiencing an adverse drug reaction. At the follow-up visit, the patient was admitted and treated with methylprednisolone monotherapy with 32 mg/day for the first 3 days and after that, methylprednisolone 16 mg for the next 3 days. The rashes resolved after 6 days. Clinicians should ascertain the patient knowledge of how and when to obtain urgent care as the patient may experience ill effects after taking prescribed treatment. Timely advice may save patients’ costs of admission and treatment to manage adverse events.

Debashis Maikap ◽  
Prasanta Padhan

Abstract Reactive arthritis is an immune mediated aseptic arthritis resulting from either genitourinary or gastrointestinal tract in a genetically susceptible host. It commonly presents as oligoarthritis of the lower limbs with or without extra articular features such as urethritis and non-purulent conjunctivitis. Therapies include NSAIDs, conventional DMARDs and rarely biologics in severe cases. We report successful use of tofacitinib in four cases of reactive arthritis who failed to respond to conventional therapies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero ◽  
Nasrin Amirzadeh ◽  
Amir Fatollahi ◽  
Marefat Siahkouhian ◽  
Anderson S. Oliveira ◽  

Background: In terms of physiological and biomechanical characteristics, over-pronation of the feet has been associated with distinct muscle recruitment patterns and ground reaction forces during running.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of running on sand vs. stable ground on ground-reaction-forces (GRFs) and electromyographic (EMG) activity of lower limb muscles in individuals with over-pronated feet (OPF) compared with healthy controls.Methods: Thirty-three OPF individuals and 33 controls ran at preferred speed and in randomized-order over level-ground and sand. A force-plate was embedded in an 18-m runway to collect GRFs. Muscle activities were recorded using an EMG-system. Data were adjusted for surface-related differences in running speed.Results: Running on sand resulted in lower speed compared with stable ground running (p &lt; 0.001; d = 0.83). Results demonstrated that running on sand produced higher tibialis anterior activity (p = 0.024; d = 0.28). Also, findings indicated larger loading rates (p = 0.004; d = 0.72) and greater vastus medialis (p &lt; 0.001; d = 0.89) and rectus femoris (p = 0.001; d = 0.61) activities in OPF individuals. Controls but not OPF showed significantly lower gluteus-medius activity (p = 0.022; d = 0.63) when running on sand.Conclusion: Running on sand resulted in lower running speed and higher tibialis anterior activity during the loading phase. This may indicate alterations in neuromuscular demands in the distal part of the lower limbs when running on sand. In OPF individuals, higher loading rates together with greater quadriceps activity may constitute a proximal compensatory mechanism for distal surface instability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 388
Erik Leemhuis ◽  
Valentina Giuffrida ◽  
Maria Luisa De Martino ◽  
Giuseppe Forte ◽  
Anna Pecchinenda ◽  

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are disruptive neurological events that severly affect the body leading to the interruption of sensorimotor and autonomic pathways. Recent research highlighted SCI-related alterations extend beyond than the expected network, involving most of the central nervous system and goes far beyond primary sensorimotor cortices. The present perspective offers an alternative, useful way to interpret conflicting findings by focusing on the deafferented and deefferented body as the central object of interest. After an introduction to the main processes involved in reorganization according to SCI, we will focus separately on the body regions of the head, upper limbs, and lower limbs in complete, incomplete, and deafferent SCI participants. On one hand, the imprinting of the body’s spatial organization is entrenched in the brain such that its representation likely lasts for the entire lifetime of patients, independent of the severity of the SCI. However, neural activity is extremely adaptable, even over short time scales, and is modulated by changing conditions or different compensative strategies. Therefore, a better understanding of both aspects is an invaluable clinical resource for rehabilitation and the successful use of modern robotic technologies.

Miguel Lecina ◽  
Carlos Castellar ◽  
Francisco Pradas ◽  
Isaac López-Laval

A series of case studies aimed to evaluate muscular fatigue in running a 768-km ultra-trail race in 11 days. Four non-professional athletes (four males) were enrolled. Muscle damage blood biomarkers (creatine kinase (CK), lactodeshydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lower limb strength were evaluated by using Bosco jumps test; squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and Abalakov jump (ABA) were assessed before (pre), after the race (post) and for two and nine days during the recovery period (rec2 and rec9), respectively. Results showed: pre-post SJ = −28%, CMJ = −36% and ABA = −21%. Values returned to basal during rec9: SJ = −1%, CMJ = −2% or even exceeded pre-values ABA = +3%. On the contrary, muscle damage blood biomarkers values increased at post; CK = +888%, LDH = +172%, AST = +167% and ALT = +159% and the values returned gradually to baseline at rec9 except for AST = +226% and ALT = +103% which remained higher. Nonparametric bivariate Spearman’s test showed strong correlations (Rs ≥ 0.8) between some jumps and muscle damage biomarkers at post (SJ-LDH Rs = 0.80, SJ-AST Rs = 0.8, ABA-LD H Rs = 0.80 and ABA-AST Rs = 0.80), at rec2 (SJ-CK Rs = 0.80 and SJ-ALT Rs = 0.80) and even during rec9 (ABA-CK). Similarly, some parameters such as accumulated elevation and training volume showed a strong correlation with LDH values after finishing the ultra-trail race. The alteration induced by completing an ultra-trail event in the muscle affects lower limb strength and may in some circumstances result in serious medical conditions including post- exertional rhabdomyolysis.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 35
Alok Atreya ◽  
Lokaratna Gyawali ◽  
Ritesh G Menezes ◽  
Navneet Ateriya ◽  
Jamuna Shreshtha ◽  

Thermal injuries in young children involving the buttocks, perineum, and lower limbs raise suspicion of child abuse. Determining the manner of death and ruling out homicide in a fatal case of scalding remains a challenge for forensic practitioners. One such issue is reported in the present case report, where a medicolegal evaluation of a fatal scald in a two-year-old girl child is discussed. Young children sustaining serious injuries from scalds is a grave social concern. Such young lives need to be protected from scald injuries whether accidental or purposeful. Differences in injury patterns on the basis of their distribution and their characteristics are important to determine manner of death in such cases.

Ergonomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Manoela Vieira Sousa ◽  
Ricardo Sebastião ◽  
Pedro Fonseca ◽  
Sara Morais ◽  
Denise Soares ◽  

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