electrical stimulation
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Meat Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 184 ◽  
pp. 108664
Gaiming Zhao ◽  
Xueyuan Bai ◽  
Wei Tian ◽  
Ang Ru ◽  
Jiahui Li ◽  

J. Flodin ◽  
R. Juthberg ◽  
P. W. Ackermann

Abstract Background Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may prevent muscle atrophy, accelerate rehabilitation and enhance blood circulation. Yet, one major drawback is that patient compliance is impeded by the discomfort experienced. It is well-known that the size and placement of electrodes affect the comfort and effect during high-intensity NMES. However, during low-intensity NMES the effects of electrode size/placement are mostly unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how electrode size and pragmatic placement affect comfort and effect of low-intensity NMES in the thigh and gluteal muscles. Methods On 15 healthy participants, NMES-intensity (mA) was increased until visible muscle contraction, applied with three electrode sizes (2 × 2 cm, 5 × 5 cm, 5 × 9 cm), in three different configurations on quadriceps and hamstrings (short-transverse (ST), long-transverse (LT), longitudinal (L)) and two configurations on gluteus maximus (short-longitudinal (SL) and long-longitudinal (LL)). Current–density (mA/cm2) required for contraction was calculated for each electrode size. Comfort was assessed with a numerical rating scale (NRS, 0–10). Significance was set to p < 0.05 and values were expressed as median (inter-quartile range). Results On quadriceps the LT-placement exhibited significantly better comfort and lower current intensity than the ST- and L-placements. On hamstrings the L-placement resulted in the best comfort together with the lowest intensity. On gluteus maximus the LL-placement demonstrated better comfort and required less intensity than SL-placement. On all muscles, the 5 × 5 cm and 5 × 9 cm electrodes were significantly more comfortable and required less current–density for contraction than the 2 × 2 cm electrode. Conclusion During low-intensity NMES-treatment, an optimized electrode size and practical placement on each individual muscle of quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals is crucial for comfort and intensity needed for muscle contraction.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chun-Chun Weng ◽  
Ning Wang ◽  
Yu-Han Zhang ◽  
Jin-Yan Wang ◽  
Fei Luo

Pain has not only sensory, but also emotional and cognitive, components. Some studies have explored the effect of pain on time perception, but the results remain controversial. Whether individual pain-related emotional and cognitive factors play roles in this process should also be explored. In this study, we investigated the effect of electrical stimulation–induced pain on interval timing using a temporal bisection task. During each task session, subjects received one of five types of stimulation randomly: no stimulus and 100 and 300 ms of non-painful and painful stimulation. Pain-related emotional and cognitive factors were measured using a series of questionnaires. The proportion of “long” judgments of a 1,200-ms visual stimulus duration was significantly smaller with 300 ms painful stimulation than with no stimulus (P &lt; 0.0001) and 100 ms (P &lt; 0.0001) and 300 ms (P = 0.021) non-painful stimulation. The point of subjective equality (PSE) did not differ among sessions, but the average Weber fraction (WF) was higher for painful sessions than for no-stimulus session (P = 0.022). The pain fear score correlated positively with the PSE under 100 ms non-painful (P = 0.031) and painful (P = 0.002) and 300 ms painful (P = 0.006) stimulation. Pain catastrophizing and pain anxiety scores correlated significantly with the WF under no stimulus (P = 0.005) and 100 ms non-painful stimulation (P = 0.027), respectively. These results suggest that electrical stimulation–induced pain affects temporal sensitivity, and that pain-related emotional and cognitive factors are associated with the processing of time perception.

Candace Tefertiller ◽  
Patricia Bartelt ◽  
Maureen Stobelaar ◽  
Susie Charlifue ◽  
Mitch Sevigny ◽  

Objectives: To evaluate upper extremity (UE) function, strength, and dynamic sitting balance in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who received an intensive outpatient therapy program focused on UE training augmented with wide pulse/high frequency functional electrical stimulation (WPHF-FES). Methods: This prospective case series was conducted in an outpatient (OP) clinic in an SCI-specific rehabilitation hospital. Participants were a convenience sample (N = 50) of individuals with tetraplegia receiving OP therapy focused on UE recovery. Individuals participated in 60 minutes of UE functional task-specific practice (FTP) in combination with WPHF-FES 5 times/week for an average of 72 sessions. The primary outcome for this analysis was the Capabilities of Upper Extremity Test (CUE-T). Secondary outcomes include UE motor score (UEMS) and the modified functional reach (MFR). Results: Fifty individuals (13 motor complete; 37 motor incomplete SCI) completed an OP UE training program incorporating WPHF-FES and were included in this analysis. On average, participants demonstrated significant improvements in the total CUE-T score of 14.1 (SD = 10.0, p &lt; .0001) points; significant changes were also noted in UEMS and MFR, improving an average of 4.6 (SD = 5.2, p &lt; .0001) points and 13.6 (SD = 15.8, p &lt; .0001) cm, respectively. Conclusion: Individuals with tetraplegia demonstrated significant improvements in UE strength, function, and dynamic sitting trunk balance after receiving UE training augmented with WPHF-FES. Future comparative effectiveness studies need to be completed to guide efficacious treatment interventions in OP therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Irene Moll ◽  
Rik G. J. Marcellis ◽  
Marcel L. P. Coenen ◽  
Sabine M. Fleuren ◽  
Paul J. B. Willems ◽  

Abstract Background Spastic cerebral palsy is the most common cause of motor disability in children. It often leads to foot drop or equinus, interfering with walking. Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are commonly used in these cases. However, AFOs can be too restrictive for mildly impaired patients. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the ankle-dorsiflexors is an alternative treatment as it could function as a dynamic functional orthosis. Despite previous research, high level evidence on the effects of FES on activities and participation in daily life is missing. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate whether FES improves the activity and participation level in daily life according to patients, and the secondary aim is to provide evidence of the effect of FES at the level of body functions and activities. Furthermore, we aim to collect relevant information for decisions on its clinical implementation. Methods A randomized crossover trial will be performed on 25 children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy. Patients aged between 4 and 18 years, with Gross Motor Functioning Classification System level I or II and unilateral foot drop of central origin, currently treated with AFO or adapted shoes, will be included. All participants will undergo twelve weeks of conventional treatment (AFO/adapted shoes) and 12 weeks of FES treatment, separated by a six-week washout-phase. FES treatment consists of wearing the WalkAide® device, with surface electrodes stimulating the peroneal nerve during swing phase of gait. For the primary objective, the Goal Attainment Scale is used to test whether FES improves activities and participation in daily life. The secondary objective is to prove whether FES is effective at the level of body functions and structures, and activities, including ankle kinematics and kinetics measured during 3D-gait analysis and questionnaire-based frequency of falling. The tertiary objective is to collect relevant information for clinical implementation, including acceptability using the device log file and side effect registration, cost-effectiveness based on quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and clinical characteristics for patient selection. Discussion We anticipate that the results of this study will allow evidence-based use of FES during walking in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03440632.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 827
Léa Réthoré ◽  
Joohee Park ◽  
Jérôme Montnach ◽  
Sébastien Nicolas ◽  
Joseph Khoury ◽  

Thanks to the crosstalk between Na+ and Ca2+ channels, Na+ and Ca2+ homeostasis interplay in so-called excitable cells enables the generation of action potential in response to electrical stimulation. Here, we investigated the impact of persistent activation of voltage-gated Na+ (NaV) channels by neurotoxins, such as veratridine (VTD), on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a model of excitable cells, the rat pituitary GH3b6 cells, in order to identify the molecular actors involved in Na+-Ca2+ homeostasis crosstalk. By combining RT-qPCR, immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and patch-clamp techniques, we showed that GH3b6 cells predominantly express the NaV1.3 channel subtype, which likely endorses their voltage-activated Na+ currents. Notably, these Na+ currents were blocked by ICA-121431 and activated by the β-scorpion toxin Tf2, two selective NaV1.3 channel ligands. Using Fura-2, we showed that VTD induced a [Ca2+]i increase. This effect was suppressed by the selective NaV channel blocker tetrodotoxin, as well by the selective L-type CaV channel (LTCC) blocker nifedipine. We also evidenced that crobenetine, a NaV channel blocker, abolished VTD-induced [Ca2+]i elevation, while it had no effects on LTCC. Altogether, our findings highlight a crosstalk between NaV and LTCC in GH3b6 cells, providing a new insight into the mode of action of neurotoxins.

2022 ◽  
Jiankang Wu ◽  
Shuai Zhang ◽  
Jiayue Xu ◽  
Junwu Dang ◽  
Qingyang Zhao ◽  

Abstract The mammalian brain has an extremely complex, diversified and highly modular structure, and information dissemination in the modular brain network affects various brain diseases. Although a variety of neuromodulation techniques have been used to study the discharge characteristics of neural networks, the effects of transcranial magneto-acoustic electrical stimulation(TMAES) have rarely been mentioned. Based on the excitatory and inhibitory Izhikevich neuron model, we constructs a feed-forward neural network connected by electrical synapses and chemical synapses, and analyzes the firing frequency of the neural network under TMAES and magnetic stimulation and the differences in each layer types of firing patterns of neurons. The results showed that the discharge patterns of neurons in each layer were different, the discharge frequency of inhibitory neurons was higher than that of excited neurons, and the stimulation signal could be transmitted to the whole network layer.The maximum discharge frequency of neural network connected by electrical coupling can reach 0.94kHz, and the discharge frequency of neural network connected by chemical coupling is less than 0.5 kHz.With the increase of coupling degree, the discharge frequency of neurons in each network layer under TMAES is much greater than that under magnetic stimulation.When the induced current is less than 26.5μA/cm 2 , magnetic stimulation can promote the inhibitory neurons, and TMAES has a variety of regulatory effects on the inhibitory neurons in the neural network. The results show that TMAES has better regulation effect than magnetic stimulation, and the regulation effect is affected by neural network structure and stimulation parameters.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Ying Shen ◽  
Lan Chen ◽  
Li Zhang ◽  
Shugang Hu ◽  
Bin Su ◽  

Background. Contralaterally controlled neuromuscular electrical stimulation (CCNMES) is a novel electrical stimulation treatment for stroke; however, reports on the efficacy of CCNMES on lower extremity function after stroke are scarce. Objective. To compare the effects of CCNMES versus NMES on lower extremity function and activities of daily living (ADL) in subacute stroke patients. Methods. Forty-four patients with a history of subacute stroke were randomly assigned to a CCNMES group and a NMES group ( n = 22 per group). Twenty-one patients in each group completed the study per protocol, with one subject lost in follow-up in each group. The CCNMES group received CCNMES to the tibialis anterior (TA) and the peroneus longus and brevis muscles to induce ankle dorsiflexion motion, whereas the NMES group received NMES. The stimulus current was a biphasic waveform with a pulse duration of 200 μs and a frequency of 60 Hz. Patients in both groups underwent five 15 min sessions of electrical stimulation per week for three weeks. Indicators of motor function and ADL were measured pre- and posttreatment, including the Fugl–Meyer assessment of the lower extremity (FMA-LE) and modified Barthel index (MBI). Surface electromyography (sEMG) assessments included average electromyography (aEMG), integrated electromyography (iEMG), and root mean square (RMS) of the paretic TA muscle. Results. Values for the FMA-LE, MBI, aEMG, iEMG, and RMS of the affected TA muscle were significantly increased in both groups after treatment ( p < 0.01 ). Patients in the CCNMES group showed significant improvements in all the measurements compared with the NMES group after treatment. Within-group differences in all post- and pretreatment indicators were significantly greater in the CCNMES group than in the NMES group ( p < 0.05 ). Conclusion. CCNMES improved motor function and ADL ability to a greater extent than the conventional NMES in subacute stroke patients.

Ritopa Das ◽  
Sofia Langou ◽  
Thinh T. Le ◽  
Pooja Prasad ◽  
Feng Lin ◽  

Immunotherapy is becoming a very common treatment for cancer, using approaches like checkpoint inhibition, T cell transfer therapy, monoclonal antibodies and cancer vaccination. However, these approaches involve high doses of immune therapeutics with problematic side effects. A promising approach to reducing the dose of immunotherapeutic agents given to a cancer patient is to combine it with electrical stimulation, which can act in two ways; it can either modulate the immune system to produce the immune cytokines and agents in the patient’s body or it can increase the cellular uptake of these immune agents via electroporation. Electrical stimulation in form of direct current has been shown to reduce tumor sizes in immune-competent mice while having no effect on tumor sizes in immune-deficient mice. Several studies have used nano-pulsed electrical stimulations to activate the immune system and drive it against tumor cells. This approach has been utilized for different types of cancers, like fibrosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, human papillomavirus etc. Another common approach is to combine electrochemotherapy with immune modulation, either by inducing immunogenic cell death or injecting immunostimulants that increase the effectiveness of the treatments. Several therapies utilize electroporation to deliver immunostimulants (like genes encoded with cytokine producing sequences, cancer specific antigens or fragments of anti-tumor toxins) more effectively. Lastly, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can trigger production and activation of anti-tumor immune cells and immune reactions. Hence, the use of electrical stimulation to modulate the immune system in different ways can be a promising approach to treat cancer.

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