Body & brain: Alzheimer's acts like prion disease: Misfolded proteins implicated in more neurological disorders

Science News ◽  
2015 ◽  
Vol 188 (8) ◽  
pp. 12-13
Laura Sanders
Pathogens ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (6) ◽  
pp. 482
Simote Foliaki ◽  
Bradley Groveman ◽  
Jue Yuan ◽  
Ryan Walters ◽  
Shulin Zhang ◽  

Cerebral organoids (COs) are a self-organizing three-dimensional brain tissue mimicking the human cerebral cortex. COs are a promising new system for modelling pathological features of neurological disorders, including prion diseases. COs expressing normal prion protein (PrPC) are susceptible to prion infection when exposed to the disease isoforms of PrP (PrPD). This causes the COs to develop aspects of prion disease pathology considered hallmarks of disease, including the production of detergent-insoluble, protease-resistant misfolded PrPD species capable of seeding the production of more misfolded species. To determine whether COs can model aspects of familial prion diseases, we produced COs from donor fibroblasts carrying the E200K mutation, the most common cause of human familial prion disease. The mature E200K COs were assessed for the hallmarks of prion disease. We found that up to 12 months post-differentiation, E200K COs harbored no PrPD as confirmed by the absence of detergent-insoluble, protease-resistant, and seeding-active PrP species. Our results suggest that the presence of the E200K mutation within the prion gene is insufficient to cause disease in neuronal tissue. Therefore, other factors, such as further genetic modifiers or aging processes, may influence the onset of misfolding.

2018 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 261-265 ◽  
Maxim Oliver ◽  
Lisa Dyke ◽  
Alex Rico ◽  
Mario Madruga ◽  
Jorge Parellada ◽  

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a rare, fatal human prion disease that is characterized by progressive dementia and neurologic degeneration. It can mimic multiple other neurological disorders, and a high index of clinical suspicion is necessary to make a diagnosis. A 74-year-old woman with a 3-month history of a stroke and progressive neurologic deterioration was found to have sCJD. She expired within a week of her diagnosis. Autopsy revealed spongiform encephalopathy consistent with prion disease, and genetic analysis revealed 129 polymorphism and no pathologic mutation, confirming the diagnosis of nonfamilial human prion disease. No pathologic evidence of a stroke was found. Awareness of the disease by clinicians is important not only at the time of initial presentation but also during the following months. Since there is no treatment, invasive medical procedures should be limited to only those that are required for either diagnosis or hospice care.

Richard L. Klein ◽  
Åsa K. Thureson-Klein ◽  
Harihara M. Mehendale

KeponeR (decachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-metheno-2H-cyclobuta[cd]pentalen-2-one) is an insecticide effective against ants and roaches. It can cause severe toxicity in fishes, birds, rodents and man. Prominent effects include hepatic lipid deposition and hypertrophy, impairment of reproductive capacity and neurological disorders. Mitochondrial oligomycin-sensitive Mg2+-ATPase is also inhibited. The present study is a preliminary investigation of tissue ultrastructural changes accompanying physiological signs of acute toxicity, which after two days treatment include: pronounced hypersensitivity and tremor, various degrees of anorexia and adipsia, and decreased weight gain.Three different series of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (Charles River or CD-I) were treated by intubation with Kepone in corn oil at a dose of 50 mg per kg for 3 successive days or at 200 ppm in food for 8 days. After ether anesthesia, rats were immediately perfused via a cannula in the left ventricle with 4% p-formaldehyde and 0.5% glutaraldehyde in Millonig's phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 for 20-30 min at 22°C.

2020 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 62-68
Sara E. Holm ◽  
Alexander Schmidt ◽  
Christoph J. Ploner

Abstract. Some people, although they are perfectly healthy and happy, cannot enjoy music. These individuals have musical anhedonia, a condition which can be congenital or may occur after focal brain damage. To date, only a few cases of acquired musical anhedonia have been reported in the literature with lesions of the temporo-parietal cortex being particularly important. Even less literature exists on congenital musical anhedonia, in which impaired connectivity of temporal brain regions with the Nucleus accumbens is implicated. Nonetheless, there is no precise information on the prevalence, causes or exact localization of both congenital and acquired musical anhedonia. However, the frequent involvement of temporo-parietal brain regions in neurological disorders such as stroke suggest the possibility of a high prevalence of this disorder, which leads to a considerable reduction in the quality of life.

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