neurological disorders
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Asma Islam ◽  
Eshrat Jahan Esha ◽  
Sheikh Farhana Binte Ahmed ◽  
Md. Kafiul Islam

Motion artifacts contribute complexity in acquiring clean electroencephalography (EEG) data. It is one of the major challenges for ambulatory EEG. The performance of mobile health monitoring, neurological disorders diagnosis and surgeries can be significantly improved by reducing the motion artifacts. Although different papers have proposed various novel approaches for removing motion artifacts, the datasets used to validate those algorithms are questionable. In this paper, a unique EEG dataset was presented where ten different activities were performed. No such previous EEG recordings using EMOTIV EEG headset are available in research history that explicitly mentioned and considered a number of daily activities that induced motion artifacts in EEG recordings. Quantitative study shows that in comparison to correlation coefficient, the coherence analysis depicted a better similarity measure between motion artifacts and motion sensor data. Motion artifacts were characterized with very low frequency which overlapped with the Delta rhythm of the EEG. Also, a general wavelet transform based approach was presented to remove motion artifacts. Further experiment and analysis with more similarity metrics and longer recording duration for each activity is required to finalize the characteristics of motion artifacts and henceforth reliably identify and subsequently remove the motion artifacts in the contaminated EEG recordings.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 165
Laura R. Rodríguez ◽  
Tamara Lapeña-Luzón ◽  
Noelia Benetó ◽  
Vicent Beltran-Beltran ◽  
Federico V. Pallardó ◽  

Calcium (Ca2+) is a versatile secondary messenger involved in the regulation of a plethora of different signaling pathways for cell maintenance. Specifically, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is mainly regulated by the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria, whose Ca2+ exchange is mediated by appositions, termed endoplasmic reticulum–mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), formed by proteins resident in both compartments. These tethers are essential to manage the mitochondrial Ca2+ influx that regulates the mitochondrial function of bioenergetics, mitochondrial dynamics, cell death, and oxidative stress. However, alterations of these pathways lead to the development of multiple human diseases, including neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich’s ataxia, and Charcot–Marie–Tooth. A common hallmark in these disorders is mitochondrial dysfunction, associated with abnormal mitochondrial Ca2+ handling that contributes to neurodegeneration. In this work, we highlight the importance of Ca2+ signaling in mitochondria and how the mechanism of communication in MAMs is pivotal for mitochondrial maintenance and cell homeostasis. Lately, we outstand potential targets located in MAMs by addressing different therapeutic strategies focused on restoring mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake as an emergent approach for neurological diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Melissa Serranilla ◽  
Melanie A. Woodin

Intracellular chloride (Cl–) levels in mature neurons must be tightly regulated for the maintenance of fast synaptic inhibition. In the mature central nervous system (CNS), synaptic inhibition is primarily mediated by gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), which binds to Cl– permeable GABAA receptors (GABAARs). The intracellular Cl– concentration is primarily maintained by the antagonistic actions of two cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs): Cl–-importing Na+-K+-Cl– co-transporter-1 (NKCC1) and Cl– -exporting K+-Cl– co-transporter-2 (KCC2). In mature neurons in the healthy brain, KCC2 expression is higher than NKCC1, leading to lower levels of intracellular Cl–, and Cl– influx upon GABAAR activation. However, in neurons of the immature brain or in neurological disorders such as epilepsy and traumatic brain injury, impaired KCC2 function and/or enhanced NKCC1 expression lead to intracellular Cl– accumulation and GABA-mediated excitation. In Huntington’s disease (HD), KCC2- and NKCC1-mediated Cl–-regulation are also altered, which leads to GABA-mediated excitation and contributes to the development of cognitive and motor impairments. This review summarizes the role of Cl– (dys)regulation in the healthy and HD brain, with a focus on the basal ganglia (BG) circuitry and CCCs as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of HD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Waqar Ahmad ◽  
Khadija Shabbiri

AbstractThe deadly SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 259,502,031 confirmed cases with 5,183,003 deaths in 223 countries during the last 22 months (Dec 2019–Nov 2021), whereas approximately 7,702,859,718, vaccine doses have been administered (WHO: as of the 24th of Nov 2021. Recent announcements of test trial completion of several new vaccines resulted in the launching of immunization for the common person around the globe highlighting a ray of hope to cope with this infection. Meanwhile, genetic variations in SARS-CoV-2 and third layer of infection spread in numerous countries emerged as a stronger prototype than the parental. New and parental SARS-CoV-2 strains appeared as a risk factor for other pre-existing diseases like cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders, kidney, liver, heart, and eye injury. This situation requires more attention and re-structuring of the currently developed vaccines and/or drugs against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although a decline in COVID-19 infection has been reported globally, an increase in COVID-19 cases in the subcontinent and east Mediterranean area could be alarming. In this review, we have summarized the current information about the SARS-CoV-2 biology, its interaction and possible infection pathways within the host, epidemiology, risk factors, economic collapse, and possible vaccine and drug development.

Mohammed A Madkhali ◽  
Jenifer-Kris Hao ◽  
Mohammad Saud Khan ◽  
Himani Sharma ◽  
Alexa Jaume ◽  

Abstract Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65kD autoantibody (GAD65Ab) is frequently detected in patients with refractory epilepsy and stiff person syndrome (SPS). In contrast to T1D, the pathological role of GAD65Ab in neurological disorders is still debatable. As a result, the implementation of possible immunotherapy is usually delayed. This report presents two cases of GAD65Ab associated brain autoimmunity and their different management. We present clinical data and discuss management based on available evidence in the reviewed literature. Both cases presented with acute on chronic neurological symptoms and were GAD65Ab positive. Case 1, a 30-year-old man with a history of early-onset T1D at 14 months, followed by cryptogenic temporal epilepsy at 11 years of age, presented with intractable seizures. Case 2, a 48-year-old woman, presented with a history of recurrent severe headaches, cognitive impairment, decreased memory, and behavioral symptoms. GAD65Ab was detected in both patients’ sera. CSF GAD65Ab was only checked and positive in case 1. Case 2 was diagnosed with limbic encephalitis, treated with immunotherapy, and showed a remarkable clinical improvement. Case 1 with refractory epilepsy failed multiple AEDs and Responsive-Stimulator System (RNS) treatments. He was finally diagnosed with autoimmune epilepsy. The delay in diagnosis resulted in a lost opportunity for early immunotherapy. In conclusion, autoantibody screening and early initiation of immunotherapy should be considered to manage GAD65Ab associated neurological disorders.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262152
Rania Harati ◽  
Saba Hammad ◽  
Abdelaziz Tlili ◽  
Mona Mahfood ◽  
Aloïse Mabondzo ◽  

Background The brain endothelial barrier permeability is governed by tight and adherens junction protein complexes that restrict paracellular permeability at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Dysfunction of the inter-endothelial junctions has been implicated in neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, stroke and Alzheimer’s disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying junctional dysfunction during BBB impairment remain elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as versatile regulators of the BBB function under physiological and pathological conditions, and altered levels of BBB-associated microRNAs were demonstrated in a number of brain pathologies including neurodegeneration and neuroinflammatory diseases. Among the altered micro-RNAs, miR-27a-3p was found to be downregulated in a number of neurological diseases characterized by loss of inter-endothelial junctions and disruption of the barrier integrity. However, the relationship between miR-27a-3p and tight and adherens junctions at the brain endothelium remains unexplored. Whether miR-27a-3p is involved in regulation of the junctions at the brain endothelium remains to be determined. Methods Using a gain-and-loss of function approach, we modulated levels of miR-27a-3p in an in-vitro model of the brain endothelium, key component of the BBB, and examined the resultant effect on the barrier paracellular permeability and on the expression of essential tight and adherens junctions. The mechanisms governing the regulation of junctional proteins by miR-27a-3p were also explored. Results Our results showed that miR-27a-3p inhibitor increases the barrier permeability and causes reduction of claudin-5 and occludin, two proteins highly enriched at the tight junction, while miR-27a-3p mimic reduced the paracellular leakage and increased claudin-5 and occludin protein levels. Interestingly, we found that miR-27-3p induces expression of claudin-5 and occludin by downregulating Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta (GSK3ß) and activating Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, a key pathway required for the BBB maintenance. Conclusion For the first time, we showed that miR-27a-3p is a positive regulator of key tight junction proteins, claudin-5 and occludin, at the brain endothelium through targeting GSK3ß gene and activating Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Thus, miR-27a-3p may constitute a novel therapeutic target that could be exploited to prevent BBB dysfunction and preserves its integrity in neurological disorders characterized by impairment of the barrier’s function.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 178-189
Liliyanti Fauzi ◽  
Tiara Bunga

The eye is a complex sensory organ that is responsible for vision. Within the protective sheath, each eye has receptors, a lens system for focusing light on receptors, and a nervous system for transmitting impulses from the receptors to the brain. Visual dysfunction can be caused by abnormal eye movements or changes in visual acuity, refraction, color vision, or accommodation. Visual dysfunction may also be a secondary effect of other neurological disorders. This narrative review aims to describe the structure of the eye in general and visual disturbances caused by the aging process and disorders of the protective structure of the eye.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Leonard Ngarka ◽  
Joseph Nelson Siewe Fodjo ◽  
Esraa Aly ◽  
Willias Masocha ◽  
Alfred K. Njamnshi

Neurological disorders related to neuroinfections are highly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), constituting a major cause of disability and economic burden for patients and society. These include epilepsy, dementia, motor neuron diseases, headache disorders, sleep disorders, and peripheral neuropathy. The highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is in SSA. Consequently, there is a high prevalence of neurological disorders associated with HIV infection such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, motor disorders, chronic headaches, and peripheral neuropathy in the region. The pathogenesis of these neurological disorders involves the direct role of the virus, some antiretroviral treatments, and the dysregulated immune system. Furthermore, the high prevalence of epilepsy in SSA (mainly due to perinatal causes) is exacerbated by infections such as toxoplasmosis, neurocysticercosis, onchocerciasis, malaria, bacterial meningitis, tuberculosis, and the immune reactions they elicit. Sleep disorders are another common problem in the region and have been associated with infectious diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis and HIV and involve the activation of the immune system. While most headache disorders are due to benign primary headaches, some secondary headaches are caused by infections (meningitis, encephalitis, brain abscess). HIV and neurosyphilis, both common in SSA, can trigger long-standing immune activation in the central nervous system (CNS) potentially resulting in dementia. Despite the progress achieved in preventing diseases from the poliovirus and retroviruses, these microbes may cause motor neuron diseases in SSA. The immune mechanisms involved in these neurological disorders include increased cytokine levels, immune cells infiltration into the CNS, and autoantibodies. This review focuses on the major neurological disorders relevant to Africa and neuroinfections highly prevalent in SSA, describes the interplay between neuroinfections, immune system, neuroinflammation, and neurological disorders, and how understanding this can be exploited for the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for improved patient care.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 158
Ming-Jen Lee ◽  
Inyoul Lee ◽  
Kai Wang

The development of new sequencing technologies in the post-genomic era has accelerated the identification of causative mutations of several single gene disorders. Advances in cell and animal models provide insights into the underlining pathogenesis, which facilitates the development and maturation of new treatment strategies. The progress in biochemistry and molecular biology has established a new class of therapeutics—the short RNAs and expressible long RNAs. The sequences of therapeutic RNAs can be optimized to enhance their stability and translatability with reduced immunogenicity. The chemically-modified RNAs can also increase their stability during intracellular trafficking. In addition, the development of safe and high efficiency carriers that preserves the integrity of therapeutic RNA molecules also accelerates the transition of RNA therapeutics into the clinic. For example, for diseases that are caused by genetic defects in a specific protein, an effective approach termed “protein replacement therapy” can provide treatment through the delivery of modified translatable mRNAs. Short interference RNAs can also be used to treat diseases caused by gain of function mutations or restore the splicing aberration defects. Here we review the applications of newly developed RNA-based therapeutics and its delivery and discuss the clinical evidence supporting the potential of RNA-based therapy in single-gene neurological disorders.

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