sprague dawley
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
I-Chen Li ◽  
Fang-Chia Chang ◽  
Ching-Chuan Kuo ◽  
Hsin-Tung Chu ◽  
Tsung-Ju Li ◽  

Sleep disturbances have been the hallmark of the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Studies have shown that once sleep is disrupted, it can lead to psychological and physical health issues which can, in turn, disrupt circadian rhythm and induce further sleep disruption. As consumers are trying to establish healthy routines, nutritional and preclinical safety investigation of fermented hispidin-enriched Sanghuangporus sanghuang mycelia (GKSS) as a novel food material for spontaneous sleep in Sprague-Dawley rats is conducted for the first time. Results showed that the nutritional analysis of GKSS including moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein, carbohydrate, and energy were found to be 2.4 ± 0.3%, 8.0 ± 2.5%, 1.7 ± 0.3%, 22.9 ± 1.2%, 65.1 ± 3.1%, and 367.1 ± 10.2 kcal/100 g respectively. In the 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study, only Sprague-Dawley male rats receiving 5 g/kg showed a slight decrease in feed consumption at week 3, but no associated clinical signs of toxicity or significant weight loss were observed. Although a significant reduction of the platelet count was found in mid- and high-dose GKSS treated male groups, such changes were noted to be within the normal range and were not correlated with relative spleen weight changes. Hence, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of GKSS was identified to be higher than 5 g/kg in rats. After the safety of GKSS is confirmed, the sleep-promoting effect of GKSS ethanolic extract enriched with hispidin was further assessed. Despite 75 mg/kg of GKSS ethanolic extract does not affect wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, GKSS ethanolic extract at 150 mg/kg significantly decreased wakefulness and enhanced NREM and REM sleep. Interestingly, such effects seem to be mediated through anti-inflammatory activities via NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings provide the preliminary evidence to studies support the claims suggesting that GKSS contained useful phytochemical hispidin could be considered as and is safe to use as a functional food agent or nutraceutical for relieving sleep problems mediated by Nrf2 pathway, which the results are useful for future clinical pilot study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Marie-Luise Bouvier ◽  
Karin Fehsel ◽  
Andrea Schmitt ◽  
Eva Meisenzahl-Lechner ◽  
Wolfgang Gaebel ◽  

Abstract Background Patients with liver diseases often have some form of anemia. Hematological dyscrasias are known side effects of antipsychotic drug medication and the occurrence of agranulocytosis under clozapine is well described. However, the sex-dependent impact of clozapine and haloperidol on erythrocytes and symptoms like anemia, and its association with hepatic iron metabolism has not yet been completely clarified. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of both antipsychotic drugs on blood parameters and iron metabolism in the liver of male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Methods After puberty, rats were treated orally with haloperidol or clozapine for 12 weeks. Blood count parameters, serum ferritin, and liver transferrin bound iron were determined by automated counter. Hemosiderin (Fe3+) was detected in liver sections by Perl’s Prussian blue staining. Liver hemoxygenase (HO-1), 5’aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS1), hepcidin, heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI), cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and 1A2 (CYP1A2) were determined by Western blotting. Results We found anemia with decreased erythrocyte counts, associated with lower hemoglobin and hematocrit, in females with haloperidol treatment. Males with clozapine medication showed reduced hemoglobin and increased red cell distribution width (RDW) without changes in erythrocyte numbers. High levels of hepatic hemosiderin were found in the female clozapine and haloperidol medicated groups. Liver HRI was significantly elevated in male clozapine medicated rats. CYP1A2 was significantly reduced in clozapine medicated females. Conclusions The characteristics of anemia under haloperidol and clozapine medication depend on the administered antipsychotic drug and on sex. We suggest that anemia in rats under antipsychotic drug medication is a sign of an underlying liver injury induced by the drugs. Changing hepatic iron metabolism under clozapine and haloperidol may help to reduce these effects of liver diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Annuska C. Berz ◽  
Markus Wöhr ◽  
Rainer K. W. Schwarting

Rats are highly social animals known to communicate with ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) of different frequencies. Calls around 50 kHz are thought to represent a positive affective state, whereas calls around 22 kHz are believed to serve as alarm or distress calls. During playback of natural 50-kHz USV, rats show a reliable and strong social approach response toward the sound source. While this response has been studied in great detail in numerous publications, little is known about the emission of USV in response to natural 50-kHz USV playback. To close this gap, we capitalized on three data sets previously obtained and analyzed USV evoked by natural 50-kHz USV playback in male juvenile rats. We compared different rat stocks, namely Wistar (WI) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) and investigated the pharmacological treatment with the dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol. These response calls were found to vary broadly inter-individually in numbers, mean peak frequencies, durations and frequency modulations. Despite the large variability, the results showed no major differences between experimental conditions regarding call likelihood or call parameters, representing a robust phenomenon. However, most response calls had clearly lower frequencies and were longer than typical 50-kHz calls, i.e., around 30 kHz and lasting generally around 0.3 s. These calls resemble aversive 22-kHz USV of adult rats but were of higher frequencies and shorter durations. Moreover, blockade of dopamine D2 receptors did not substantially affect the emission of response calls suggesting that they are not dependent on the D2 receptor function. Taken together, this study provides a detailed analysis of response calls toward playback of 50-kHz USV in juvenile WI and SD rats. This includes calls representing 50-kHz USV, but mostly calls with lower frequencies that are not clearly categorizable within the so far known two main groups of USV in adult rats. We discuss the possible functions of these response calls addressing their communicative functions like contact or appeasing calls, and whether they may reflect a state of frustration. In future studies, response calls might also serve as a new read-out in rat models for neuropsychiatric disorders, where acoustic communication is impaired, such as autism spectrum disorder.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Tadeo Bermudez ◽  
Saad Sammani ◽  
Jin H. Song ◽  
Vivian Reyes Hernon ◽  
Carrie L. Kempf ◽  

AbstractDespite encouraging preclinical data, therapies to reduce ARDS mortality remains a globally unmet need, including during the COVID-19 pandemic. We previously identified extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) as a novel damage-associated molecular pattern protein (DAMP) via TLR4 ligation which regulates inflammatory cascade activation. eNAMPT is tightly linked to human ARDS by biomarker and genotyping studies in ARDS subjects. We now hypothesize that an eNAMPT-neutralizing mAb will significantly reduce the severity of ARDS lung inflammatory lung injury in diverse preclinical rat and porcine models. Sprague Dawley rats received eNAMPT mAb intravenously following exposure to intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or to a traumatic blast (125 kPa) but prior to initiation of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) (4 h). Yucatan minipigs received intravenous eNAMPT mAb 2 h after initiation of septic shock and VILI (12 h). Each rat/porcine ARDS/VILI model was strongly associated with evidence of severe inflammatory lung injury with NFkB pathway activation and marked dysregulation of the Akt/mTORC2 signaling pathway. eNAMPT neutralization dramatically reduced inflammatory indices and the severity of lung injury in each rat/porcine ARDS/VILI model (~ 50% reduction) including reduction in serum lactate, and plasma levels of eNAMPT, IL-6, TNFα and Ang-2. The eNAMPT mAb further rectified NFkB pathway activation and preserved the Akt/mTORC2 signaling pathway. These results strongly support targeting the eNAMPT/TLR4 inflammatory pathway as a potential ARDS strategy to reduce inflammatory lung injury and ARDS mortality.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 389-401
Jiaqi Yuan ◽  
Yunting Wang ◽  
Shengquan Mi ◽  
Jiayu Zhang ◽  
Yaxuan Sun

Purpose: To determine the metabolism of caffeic acid in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were intragastrically administered caffeic acid in saline suspension, and biological samples collected. After sample pretreatment by solid phase extraction, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry system (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was established to rapidly screen and characterize caffeic acid metabolites in rats. Waters HSS T3 UPLC chromatographic column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) was applied for the gradient elution with aqueous solution of formic acid (A)-acetonitrile (B). Mass spectral data for the biological samples in electrospray positive and negative ion modes were collected and analyzed by SCIEX OS 1.3 workstation. Results: Based on their precise molecular weights and multistage mass spectrometry cleavage information, caffeic acid and 21 metabolites in vivo were identified. The results demonstrate that the biotransformation of caffeic acid in vivo was mainly achieved via hydrogenation, hydroxylation, methylation, sulfonation, glucuronidation, acetylation, and composite reactions. Conclusion: The metabolites and metabolic pathways of caffeic acid in rats have been rapidly elucidated, and its potential pharmacodynamics forms have been clarified. This provides a valuable and meaningful reference for the study of caffeic acid metabolites, biological activities, and its medicinal material basis in vivo.

Hey-Ran Choi ◽  
Hong-Seuk Yang ◽  
Jae-Moon Choi ◽  
Chungon Park ◽  
Junyong In ◽  

Background: Sugammadex is a specific antagonist of aminosteroidal neuromuscular blocking agents with 1:1 binding to guest molecules. Sugammadex can also bind to other drugs having a steroid component in its chemical structure. In this in vivo experiment, we investigated the differences in the recovery of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade using sugammadex pre-exposed with two different concentrations of hydrocortisone.Methods: The sciatic nerves and tibialis anterior muscles of 30 adult Sprague–Dawley rats were prepared for the experiment. The sciatic nerves were stimulated using a train-of-four (TOF) pattern with indirect supramaximal stimulation at 20 s intervals. After 15 min of stabilization, a 250 μg loading dose and 125 μg booster doses of rocuronium were serially administered until > 95% depression of the first twitch tension of TOF stimulation (T1) was confirmed. The study drugs were prepared by mixing sugamadex with the same volume of three different stock solutions (0.9% normal saline, 10 mg/ml hydrocortisone, and 100 mg/ml hydrocortisone). The recovery of rats from neuromuscular blockade was monitored by assessing T1 and the TOF ratio (TOFR) simultaneously until T1 was recovered to > 95% and TOFR to > 0.9.Results: In the group injected with sugammadex premixed with a high concentration of hydrocortisone, statistically significant intergroup differences were observed in the recovery progression of T1 and TOFR (P < 0.050).Conclusions: When sugammadex was pre-exposed to a high dose of hydrocortisone only, recovery from neuromuscular blockade was delayed. Delayed recovery from neuromuscular blockade is not always plausible when sugammadex is pre-exposed to steroidal drugs.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0260356
Mie S. Berke ◽  
Louise K. D. Fensholdt ◽  
Sara Hestehave ◽  
Otto Kalliokoski ◽  
Klas S. P. Abelson

Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats is a common animal model for studying chronic inflammatory pain. However, modelling of the disease is associated with unnecessary pain and impaired animal wellbeing, particularly in the immediate post-induction phase. Few attempts have been made to counteract these adverse effects with analgesics. The present study investigated the effect of buprenorphine on animal welfare, pain-related behaviour and model-specific parameters during the disease progression in a rat model of CFA-induced monoarthritis. The aim was to reduce or eliminate unnecessary pain in this model, in order to improve animal welfare and to avoid suffering, without compromising the quality of the model. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were injected with 20 μl of CFA into the left tibio-tarsal joint to induce monoarthritis. Rats were treated with either buprenorphine or carprofen for 15 days during the disease development, and were compared to a saline-treated CFA-injected group or a negative control group. Measurements of welfare, pain-related behaviour and clinical model-specific parameters were collected. The study was terminated after 3 weeks, ending with a histopathologic analysis. Regardless of treatment, CFA-injected rats displayed mechanical hyperalgesia and developed severe histopathological changes associated with arthritis. However, no severe effects on general welfare were found at any time. Buprenorphine treatment reduced facial pain expression scores, improved mobility, stance and lameness scores and it did not supress the CFA-induced ankle swelling, contrary to carprofen. Although buprenorphine failed to demonstrate a robust analgesic effect on the mechanical hyperalgesia in this study, it did not interfere with the development of the intended pathology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chunliang Xie ◽  
Zhoumei Zhang ◽  
Manyi Yang ◽  
Cha Cao ◽  
Yingjun Zhou ◽  

Emerging evidence indicates that probiotics have been proved to influence liver injury and regeneration. In the present study, the effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum AR113 on the liver regeneration were investigated in 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were gavaged with L. plantarum AR113 suspensions (1 × 1010 CFU/mL) both before and after partial hepatectomy. The results showed that L. plantarum AR113 administration 2 weeks before partial hepatectomy can accelerate liver regeneration by increased hepatocyte proliferation and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) expression. Probiotic administration enriched Lactobacillus and Bacteroides and depleted Flavonifractor and Acetatifactor in the gut microbiome. Meanwhile, L. plantarum AR113 showed decline of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidyl serine (PS), and lysophosphatidyl choline (LysoPC) levels in the serum of the rats after the L. plantarum AR113 administration. Moreover, L. plantarum AR113 treated rats exhibited higher concentrations of L-leucine, L-isoleucine, mevalonic acid, and lower 7-oxo-8-amino-nonanoic acid in plasma than that in PHx. Spearman correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between changes in gut microbiota composition and glycerophospholipid. These results indicate that L. plantarum AR113 is promising for accelerating liver regeneration and provide new insights regarding the correlations among the microbiome, the metabolome, and liver regeneration.

2022 ◽  
Xingfa Han ◽  
Xu Xia ◽  
Yong Zhuo ◽  
Lun Hua ◽  
Guozhi Yu ◽  

Abstract Backgroud: Salivary gland degeneration and dysfunction are common symptoms that occur after sex hormone deprivation, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Additionally, immunocastration, which causes drop of sex hormones, has been developed as an alternative to surgical castration, however whether it exerts similar effects as surgical castration on the salivary glands is unknown. Through histological and RNA-seq analysis, we assessed changes in morphology and transcriptome of submaxillary gland (SMG) in response to immunocastration (IM) versus surgical castration (bilateral orchiectomy, ORC). Results: Compared to intact males (EM), ORC caused a dramatical degeneration of SMG in rats, as evidenced by both decreased (P < 0.01) SMG weight and organ index, and by decreased (P < 0.01) quantity of SMG acini and ducts. IM had minimal effects (P > 0.05) on SMG weight and organ index, but it still caused degeneration (P < 0.05) of the acini and ducts. Even though, the quantity of both SMG acini and ducts was much higher (P < 0.001) in IM than in ORC. Functional enrichment analysis of the common regulated genes by ORC/IM revealed disrupted epithelial cell development, angiogenesis, anatomical structure morphogenesis and enhanced cell death are associated with SMG degeneration in deprivation of androgens. Integrated data analysis shown that there existed a selective hyperfunction of SMG ribosome and mitochondrion in ORC but not in IM, which might be associated with more severe degeneration of SMG in ORC than in IM. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that both surgical castration and immunocastration caused SMG degeneration by disrupting epithelial cell development, angiogenesis, anatomical structure morphogenesis and enhancing cell death. But, surgical castration selectively induced hyperfunction of SMG ribosome and mitochondrion, thus causing more severe degeneration of SMG than immunocastration.

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